| cognitive support

The Ultimate Guide to Cortigon

By Jayton Miller

Many people know that cortisol is a health destroyer on so many levels. Not only is it a protective hormone destroyer, but it also causes inflammation, which in turn leads to all sorts of other health hiccups. Knowing how to lower cortisol is the first step to better vitality and well-being. We’ll show you the keys to reducing cortisol with Cortigon and without resorting to quick-fixes in the form of medications and OTC drugs.

Table Of Contents:

What Is Cortisol And Why Is It Bad?:

Most people have a general understanding of cortisol. They know that it is a stress hormone released in response to various stress factors, both physical and psychological. In minimal amounts, cortisol is actually good for you. 

For one, it stimulates adrenaline release when there is actual physical danger. It also temporarily increases metabolism and controls blood pressure.

The problem is that poor lifestyle factors cause our bodies to produce more cortisol than we need for a longer amount of time than is needed. The end result may manifest in symptoms not conducive to our health. Aside from diminished testosterone, it may also include:

  • Weight gain
  • Muscle weakness
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Mental fog
  • Migraines
  • Bone density loss

Too little cortisol can also be a bad thing. However, most people have more cortisol rather than too little. This is all thanks to the western lifestyle where the body perceives stress due to factors like a crappy diet, being overworked, not being physically active enough, etc.

Read More: The Low Cortisol Lifestyle: UMZU's Guide To Fighting Stress

Why Should You Take Cortigon?:

why should you take cortigon

In this fast-paced world, stress levels are rising. Techniques to manage anxiety and stress are increasingly available. However, striving to reach individualized, optimal health is the most effective way to combat stress. Stressors target all forms of health: mental, physical, sexual, and emotional. Addressing problems involving proper nutrition, exercise, and sleep is necessary. A lack of proper vitamins, minerals, and nutrients can derail the healthiest lifestyle.

Research conducted by Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board’s Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease1 addresses nutrient deficits. Many people assume that all necessary nutrients are present in food. This belief is untrue and results in nutritional imbalances. Often, certain minerals are present with high levels, while others are nonexistent. Specifically targeting this imbalance, with supplements for anxiety and stress, helps achieve a state of optimal health.

Stress and Health Issues

Stress is typically the catalyst for a multitude of health problems. For instance, coping mechanisms, often developed as a method of handling high stress, can end up being unhealthy in a lot of cases.

Other consequences of stress that could provide linkages to health have been found, such as increases in smoking, substance use, accidents, sleep problems, and eating disorders.1

Even if you do not have any harmful behaviors, the body still suffers from natural consequences. Long-term, intense stress is tied to rises in blood pressure, heart disease, and cardiac arrest. The body’s reaction to stress is to prioritize certain functions as a method of self-defense. This does not allow the body to function at top capacity. Rather, important resources — such as blood, oxygen and energy — are diverted to where they are most needed. At best, this is meant to be a temporary state. Living in fight-or-flight mode produces a laundry list of issues: adrenal fatigue, weight gain, and a lack of circulation to vital organs.

Cortigon is a revolutionary natural anti-stress supplement designed to stabilize cortisol levels. Cortisol is a naturally occurring steroid hormone that is produced in the adrenal glands. It is often referred to as the “stress hormone” because it is most commonly associated with being released in response to a stressor. However, cortisol also plays a part in cognitive health, metabolism, and so much more. High levels of cortisol in the body can negatively affect your physical and mental health.

Those who take Cortigon experience the following benefits:

  • Decrease in your levels of stress
  • Reduction in anxiety
  • Balancing your hormones naturally
  • Improved mental energy and focus
  • Improved mood
  • Increased cognitive abilities
  • Increased energy levels
  • Improved memory retention

cortigon

Cortigon Ingredients

cortigon ingredients

As we have already mentioned, we have only included ingredients with clinical research supporting them. In our literature review, we found that the following are the most effective for improving your brain health and helping to eliminate stress.

  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B12
  • Phosphatidylserine
  • Ginkgo Biloba

All five ingredients in Cortigon can aid your brain health by improving your body’s ability to fight stress.

Cortigon Ingredient Doses

As we have already mentioned, each of our ingredients has clinical-research to back it. We have also made sure that we have included each ingredient in the exact dose research shows to be effective.

Cortigon Ingredient List

You may be able to get many of the ingredients that we have included in Cortigon through food. However, taking a supplement helps you get the exact correct doses.

Here is what each daily dose (one capsule) of Cortigon provides you with. If you want to look at the research for any of these ingredients yourself, we have curated it here.

Vitamin B Medley (Thiamin, Pyridoxine, and Methylcobalamin)

vitamin b-12

Cortigon contains thiamin, pyridoxine, and methylcobalamin. All three are essential nutrients needed by the body in small amounts. Since these vitamins are water-soluble, they must be replenished by the diet daily.

Thiamin, otherwise known as Vitamin B1, is an essential vitamin that is pretty dense in a relatively healthy diet, however, extra supplementation does carry benefits for glucose utilization and methylation.

Thiamin was discovered in 1912 by a polish biochemist Casimir Funk by isolating this nutrient from the husk of rice. 

Thiamin is a necessary nutrient for the production of glucose within the body and is typically flushed out during times of high alcohol intake. It is also deemed to be deficient in times of high blood glucose. 

Some of the benefits that have been associated with thiamin are significant decreases in pre-menstruation symptoms, decreases in blood pressure, and mitigation of side effects from excess alcohol intake. 

Some of the best sources from food to get bioavailable and unreactive thiamin are pork, steak, orange juice, and mussels. 

When supplementing with extra thiamin, you want to ensure that you are not exceeding 100-300 mg. 

Going a little high in thiamin is not as dangerous as one might think, as thiamin is a water-soluble vitamin and can easily be passed from the system. However, if the dose is too large, it can cause problems, so anything 300 mg or below is what can be taken safely.†

Pyridoxine, also known as Vitamin B6, is an essential vitamin that is used throughout the body. 

Pyridoxine was originally discovered in 1934 by Paul Gyorgy and was first synthesized in 1938 by Samuel Lepkovsky. 

Pyridoxine is a cofactor that is essential for many different chemical reactions to occur throughout the body. Without this nutrient, scientists have seen that it can cause convulsions and strange lesions on the skin of mammals. 

Pyridoxine and similar derivatives that are needed by the body can easily be found in a nutrient-rich diet. Some of the best sources of pyridoxine are eggs, milk, potatoes, pork, and some types of fish. 

Methylcobalamin is also known as the best form of Vitamin B12. 

Methylcobalamin was first discovered in 1948 as the coenzyme form of Vitamin B12.

Methylcobalamin is the only form of Vitamin B12 that can directly participate in the metabolism of homocysteine, which can be very toxic when present in excess. 

Vitamin B12, in general, is necessary for proper neurological function and reduction of chances of various neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular issues, and many others. It plays a vital role in the antioxidant processes in the body by helping to produce sAME, which is one of the most important methyl donors in the body. 

When it comes to supplementation of B12, you want to ensure that it is in the form of methylcobalamin and not cyanocobalamin. Cyanocobalamin is a poor form of this vitamin and is not very bioavailable, so the body cannot use it as effectively as the methylcobalamin form. 

Learn More: Everything You Need To Know About Vitamin B

Phosphatidylserine (300 mg)

phosphatidylserine

Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid that is comprised of amino acids and fatty acids. Your body actually makes phosphatidylserine, although this ingredient is most commonly consumed through the foods we eat.

What is the Function of Phosphatidylserine?

Phosphatidylserine wears many different hats, as it protects your brain cells and plays a role in the formation of bone matrix and the repair of cells. This powerful ingredient is also involved in hormone secretion by the adrenal glands. Phosphatidylserine is known for improving cognitive function.

Benefits of Phosphatidylserine

Phosphatidylserine is the core ingredient in Cortigon that offers users a variety of benefits. These benefits include:

  • Lowers cortisol levels: Cortisol is also known as the stress hormone and can have a negative impact on your day to day life if levels are too high. Phosphatidylserine reduces levels of cortisol to help you feel less and stressed in your day-to-day life.
  • Reduces anxiety: Reduced cortisol levels not only reduce stress but also reduce feelings of anxiety.
  • Improves mental focus and clarity – Phosphatidylserine helps improve your ability to focus on the tasks at hand and the clarity to accurately perceive the world around you and respond accordingly.

In simple words, phosphatidylserine is a type of fat that can be found in every cell membrane of the human body that also contains the mineral phosphorus. Several human studies have found out that phosphatidylserine improves cognitive function, attention, and memory. Not to mention that PS is also known as being one of the top supplements for reducing cortisol, fatigue, ADHD symptoms, and cognitive decline.

Phosphatidylserine has countless human results, along with an FDA approved health claim regarding its ability to reverse neurodegenerative disease in humans, which is due to its naturally potent action on nourishing the brain’s neurotransmitters and hormonal health (and also mental health).

You cannot go wrong with taking phosphatidylserine to reduce cortisol.

What Is the Recommended Dosage of Phosphatidylserine?

The recommended daily dosage of phosphatidylserine is 100-150 mg. Cortigon contains 150 mg of phosphatidylserine per day.

Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract (100 mg)

ginkgo biloba

Benefits of Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo extract is a powerful addition to UMZU’s Cortigon supplement. The benefits of Ginkgo biloba include:

  • Improves memory retention and recall: Ginkgo biloba helps users recall and retain important information.
  • Improved focus – Users enjoy improved focus, which helps you complete day-to-day tasks for quickly and efficiently.
  • Decreases neural fatigue – Ginkgo biloba helps keep you mentally sharp, which decreases fatigue.

This is one of the herbs for anxiety commonly sold as a supplement. It is popular for alleviating an array of physical ailments such as blood disorders, cardiovascular disease ,and macular degeneration. It also happens to be popular as a mood enhancer.

The ginkgo tree, by the way, happens to be one of the oldest tree species in the world. It can also live to around 1,000 years, with some ginkgo trees in China estimated to be around 2,500 years of age.

Anyways, what is Ginkgo Biloba’s role in anxiety treatment? One study suggests the herb may be useful for reducing anxiety and stabilizing mood in elderly patients experiencing Alzheimer’s or cognitive decline. The same study also suggests the herb warrants further research as a possible anti-dementia drug.

Ginkgo biloba is another heavily researched supplement that is great for reducing cortisol. It is a plant extract that was used in Chinese medicine for a very long time.

There have been human studies that show a reduction of rise in blood pressure and cortisol release during stress by ginkgo biloba extract in healthy volunteers. This means that in times when you are stressed out, ginkgo biloba extract can help limit the amount of cortisol released.

In studies performed on animals, ginkgo biloba has been shown to attenuate the effects of acute stress. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract is definitely one to add to your cortisol-reducing arsenal. The most convenient way to get it is through supplementation.

What Is the Recommended Dosage of Ginkgo Biloba?

Cortigon offers 100 mg of Ginkgo biloba extract per serving!

Cortigon Benefits:

cortigon benefits

Cortigon Increases Mental Focus

Cortigon increases your ability to be able to concentrate on the task at hand. We have all been in a position where we really need to complete a project and yet it feels like your mind is being pulled in a million different directions. How nice would it be to have laser-like focus? There is no doubt that you could significantly increase your productivity by taking Cortigon.

Cortigon Improves Mental Clarity

When your mental clarity is improved, you are able to more accurately perceive the world around you. This gives you the ability to make important decisions quicker than if you are experiencing brain fog. UMZU’s Cortigon allows you to more accurately read situations and determine the appropriate response.

Cortigon Boosts Mental Energy

A lack of or decrease in mental energy can be more exhausting than a lack of physical energy. Increased mental energy allows you to have the motivation, determination, focus, and desire to complete tasks. Those who have higher levels of mental energy also tend to be in better moods! Cortigon provides elevated mental energy levels without the dreaded crash!

Cortigon Develops Memory Retention

The ability to retain information makes everyday tasks much easier. For instance, let’s say you have a meeting at 11:00am in room 206 and another meeting at 3:30pm in room 312. Your ability to retain both pieces of information, without having to look at your calendar several times, allows you to focus on completing other tasks before your meetings.

Cortigon Provides Brain Support

Your brain is a powerful tool affecting how you feel both mentally and physically. UMZU’s Cortigon nourishes your brain so that you are always performing your best.

Cortigon Promotes a Healthy Balance of Hormones

High levels of cortisol also known as the stress hormone are associated with anxiety and stress. UMZU’s Cortigon is designed to stabilize your levels of cortisol fast. This, in turn, helps to reduce the amount of stress and anxiety you experience, which helps you to be more productive. Many people do not realize that anxiety and stress are common inhibitors of the ability to perform tasks efficiently.

How to Maximize Your Results From Cortigon

maximize cortigon benefits

Cortigon is an extremely potent product and works for most people without any kind of changes to their life other than adding in the supplement. However, there are some things that you can do to make Cortigon work even better for you!

  1. Combine it with The Thermo Diet - Without a good diet, supplements can only do so much good. When you support your body properly with the right fuel, then the supplements you use can work wonders. 
  2. Be consistent - Many people do not see results because they are simply not consistent with taking the supplement. The more consistent you are, the better your results will be!
  3. Exercise - Exercise is crucial for a healthy body, and is a key component for having a healthy circulatory system. Resistance training and walking specifically have been shown in research to be the most beneficial in the long term for an optimal functioning body. To find the perfect exercise program for you check out UMZU fit! 
  4. Get enough sleep - Sleep is crucial for the body to be able to heal and function at its best. Be sure to get 7-9 hours a night to allow for your body to be fully rejuvenated. 
  5. Stack it with Mucuna - The ingredients in Cortigon stacked with Mucuna allow for an amazing sense of well-being to take place and when taken together, many customers cannot go a day without taking them both together as it makes them feel absolutely amazing. 

Who Benefits The Most From Cortigon?:

who benefits from cortigon

Cortigon is approved for adults 18 years and older. It is perfect for anyone looking to reduce the amount of stress in their lives. If you want to increase energy levels, improve focus, strengthen your memory, and help lower stress levels, then you are a great candidate for Cortigon.

Not sure if this applies to you? Do you feel brain fog, unfocused, or passively watching life pass you by? Or do you feel as if you do not have enough energy to give to both your career and your family? Do little inconveniences give you anxiety or increase your stress levels? If you answered yes to any or all of these questions, then Cortigon is for you.

If you are worried about negative side effects, there is no need for alarm. UMZU uses only natural, safe, and clinically researched ingredients in Cortigon. This means that there are not any negative side effects associated with taking Cortigon. Even if you are taking medications, Cortigon should not interfere with the effectiveness of these medications, nor should it cause a negative interaction. However, we always recommend that you consult your healthcare provider if you do have concerns before you take Cortigon.

Frequently Asked Questions About Cortigon:

Everybody is different, so sometimes what works for most people may not work as well for you.  

Particularly if you have a pre-existing medical condition, you may have some challenges when you add a potent supplement to your regimen.

If you are taking a prescription drug, we strongly recommend that you consult your prescribing medical professional before introducing a new supplement.  

We cannot tell you how a drug might interact with a supplement, beyond saying that sometimes the drug or your underlying condition contraindicate the use of one or more ingredients in a supplement, and it is important to consult your prescribing physician to make sure everything will work well together to support your health.

Another thing to consider is your overall sensitivity to foods and supplements, as well as your body weight.  If you know that you are quite sensitive or you are petite, start out slowly with a lower dose and work up to our recommended serving size, paying attention to how you feel. You can dial it back if you find that your body is not tolerating the ‘whole enchilada’ – maybe you are happiest with half an enchilada.  

Know that efficacy is proven at the recommended serving size, but again, that is a general rule and you may still be able to experience the benefits with a lower dose!

Our Suggested Use instructions call for 1 capsule, 1 time per day with a meal. 

cortigon

References 

Phosphatidylserine

PS used in this study is considered as a safety food ingredient and 6 months of PS supplementation could improve the memory functions of the elderly with memory complaints. (Link)

 The results indicate that PS-DHA may improve cognitive performance in non-demented elderly with memory complaints. (Link)

Effect of Phosphatidylserine on Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease (Link)

BC-PS reduced the higher power values compared to placebo, shifting EEG power more towards the normal level. (Link)

Results suggest that phosphatidylserine may be a promising candidate for study in the early stages of AD. (Link)

The results suggest that chronic oral administration of phosphatidylserine may counteract stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in men. (Link)

PS supplementation significantly increased cognitive function prior to exercise. Improved cognitive function could benefit athletes and non-athletes alike. PS did not appear to affect mood or endocrine response prior to or following resistance exercise. (Link)

This is the first study to report improved exercise capacity following phosphatidylserine supplementation. These findings suggest that phosphatidylserine might possess potential ergogenic properties. (Link)

The results of this 30-week study suggest that PS-Omega3 may reduce ADHD symptoms in children. (Link)

PS significantly improved ADHD symptoms and short-term auditory memory in children. PS supplementation might be a safe and natural nutritional strategy for improving mental performance in young children suffering from ADHD. (Link)

It is concluded that six weeks of PS supplementation shows a statistically not significant tendency (p = 0.07) to improve perceived stress levels in golfers and significantly improves (Link)

An open trial of plant-source derived phosphatydilserine for treatment of age-related cognitive decline. (Link)

Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (Link)

The main finding of the study was that chronic supplementation of phosphatidylserine significantly decreases Beta-1 power in right hemispheric frontal brain regions (F8; P < 0.05) before and after induced stress.  (Link)

 However, administration of GBE complexed with phosphatidylserine resulted in improved secondary memory performance and significantly increased speed of memory task performance across all of the post-dose testing sessions. (Link)

Ginkgo Leaf Extract

The data add further evidence on the safety and efficacy of EGb 761 in the treatment of cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of dementia. (Link)

Thus, the clinical efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in dementia of the Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia was confirmed.(Link)

  Individual analyses of the cognitive tests showed some advantage of Tanakan over placebo, but when the accuracy scores from all eight tests were combined using two different techniques, although both groups improved over time, the improvement with Tanakan at week 12 was significantly greater than with placebo. (Link)

These results indicate that the use of Ginkgo extracts in elderly individuals with cognitive impairment might be promising.  (Link)

GBT tablets can improve the therapeutic efficacy as well improve cognitive ability and cerebral blood flow supply of patients with VCIND. (Link)

EGb 761(®) at a once-daily dose of 240 mg was safe and resulted in a significant and clinically relevant improvement in cognition, psychopathology, functional measures, and quality of life of patients and caregivers. (Link)

EGb 761® improved cognitive functioning, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and functional abilities in both types of dementia. (Link)

Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R), donepezil, or both combined in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, double-blind, exploratory trial. (Link)

Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. (Link)

Taken together, the findings from standardized neuropsychological assessment and a subjective, self-report questionnaire suggested that relatively short-term (i.e., 6 weeks) utilization of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 may prove efficacious in enhancing certain neurocognitive functions/processes of cognitively intact older adults. (Link)

EGb 761 (240 mg once daily) improves free recall of appointments in middle-aged healthy volunteers, which requires high demands on self-initiated retrieval of learned material. (Link)

 Overall, the results from both objective, standardized, neuropsychological tests and a subjective, follow-up self-report questionnaire provided complementary evidence of the potential efficacy of Ginkgo biloba EGb 761 in enhancing certain neuropsychological/memory processes of cognitively intact older adults, 60 years of age and over. (Link)

Some improvement in quality of life and cognitive function were noted with Ginkgo biloba. (Link)

This newly developed, holistic fresh leaf extract of Ginkgo biloba is a safe, effective, and, at least, adjuvant treatment option for patients with mild cognitive impairments. (Link)

Reduction of rise in blood pressure and cortisol release during stress by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in healthy volunteers.(Link)

Following ginkgo and the ginkgo/ginseng combination performance of both the Serial Threes and Serial Sevens, subtraction tasks were also improved at the later testing sessions. (Link)

Although the mechanisms by which Ginkgo biloba may contribute to overall enhancement of the parameters evaluated have not been specified, this plant extract certainly appears to be effective in the treatment of cognitive deficits in older people. (Link)

 EGb 761 (240 mg once daily) improves free recall of appointments in middle-aged healthy volunteers. (Link)

There was a dose-dependent improvement in speed of responding during Serial Threes following Ginkgo biloba. Different doses of Ginseng improved accuracy and slowed responses during Serial Sevens. (Link)

GBE administration appears to have a desirable effect on ocular blood flow in NTG patients. (Link)

Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocity. (Link)

Based on the animal data, these results suggest that EGb may improve sleep continuity and enhance Non-REM sleep due to a weakening of tonic CRH-activity. (Link)

 However, sleep efficiency measures and subjective sleep quality reports showed that Li 1370 was well tolerated.(Link)

In conclusion, treatment with EGb 761(®) at a once-daily dose of 240 mg was safe and resulted in a significant and clinically relevant improvement in cognition, psychopathology, functional measures, and quality of life of patients and caregivers. (Link)

EGb 761® improved cognitive functioning, neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional abilities in both types of dementia. (Link)

Ginkgo biloba for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a double blind, randomized controlled trial. (Link)

 It was safe and well tolerated and may thus be of particular value in elderly patients with anxiety related to cognitive decline. (Link)

 In this small cohort of normal elderly individuals, a mild increase in CBF is found in the left parietal-occipital WM after EGb, as well as a small but statistically significant increase in global CBF. (Link)

This extract is an interesting adjuvant treatment option for patients suffering from impaired microcirculation and improves mechanisms that inhibit an accelerated expression of atherosclerosis. (Link)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and its Val66Met gene polymorphism predict tardive dyskinesia treatment response to Ginkgo biloba. (Link)

Extract of Ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol was effective for positive symptoms in refractory schizophrenia. (Link)

The present study supported the findings of the previous study demonstrating that EGb might enhance the efficiency of antipsychotic in patients with schizophrenia, particularly on positive symptoms of the disorder. (Link)

These preliminary data suggested that EGb was found useful for enhancing the effect of clozapine on negative symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. (Link)

Ginkgo biloba extract administration appears to improve pre existing visual field damage in some patients with NTG. (Link)

Thiamin

Taking of thiamine had no influence on memory, but reaction times were faster following supplementation. These influences took place in subjects whose thiamine status, according to the traditional criterion, was adequate. (Link)

Complete overview of Thiamin and related disorders for deficiency. (Link)

High-dose thiamine improves the symptoms of fibromyalgia. (Link)

The administration of large quantities of thiamine increases the concentration in the blood to levels in which the passive transport restores the normal glucose metabolism in all cells and leads to a complete regression of fatigue. (Link)

This observation suggests that post-stroke fatigue and related disorders could be the manifestation of mild thiamine deficiency due to a dysfunction of intracellular transport of thiamine or to structural enzymatic abnormalities.(Link)

Cardiac manifestations may improve within hours to days, while neurological improvement may take 3–6 months with motor manifestations responding better than sensory symptoms. (Link)

A poor increase in thiamin mono- and diphosphate was paralleled by a slow clinical improvement in one patient, while an increase in all thiamin compounds was observed in two patients with a rapid recovery. (Link)

 This review considers the role of B vitamins in the aetiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with alcohol misuse, with particular emphasis on WKS. (Link)

Preventing cell death induced by carbonyl stress, oxidative stress or mitochondrial toxins with vitamin B anti‐AGE agents. (Link)

Thiamine deficiency is common in elderly patients admitted to hospital and may contribute to the development of delirium. (Link)

 Taken together, our studies suggest that thiamin and TPP function as important stress-response molecules that alleviate oxidative stress during different abiotic stress conditions. (Link)

B-6

These data provide preliminary evidence of reduced functional B vitamin status, particularly of pyridoxine, in CFS patients. (Link)

Preventing cell death induced by carbonyl stress, oxidative stress or mitochondrial toxins with vitamin B anti‐AGE agents. (Link)

Complete overview of B-6. (Link)

Vitamin B6 might help reduce the risk of late-life depression. (Link)

Nonetheless, in some patients, particularly infants with intractable epilepsy, treatment with pyridoxine or pyridoxal phosphate can be life-saving, and in other infants with inborn errors of metabolism B(6) treatment can be extremely beneficial. (Link)

The homocysteine depression hypothesis, if true, would mandate inclusions of imaging studies for cerebrovascular disease and measures of homocysteine, folate, and B12 and B6 vitamins in the clinical evaluation of older depressed patients. (Link)

Treatment with folate, B12, and B6 can improve cerebral function. Preventive vitamin B supplementation and sufficient intake seem very important for secondary and primary prevention of neuropsychiatric disorders. (Link)

Our study suggests that a low level of plasma PLP is associated with symptoms of depression. (Link)

Deficient levels of plasma PLP (plasma PLP < 20 nmol/L) approximately doubled the likelihood of depressive caseness. (Link)

Our results support the hypothesis that high total intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 are protective of depressive symptoms over time in community-residing older adults. (Link)

B vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM atrophy, thereby slowing cognitive decline. Our results show that B-vitamin supplementation can slow the atrophy of specific brain regions that are a key component of the AD process and that are associated with cognitive decline. (Link)

Recent developments in the molecular role of B6 and its direct interaction with inflammasomes, and nuclear receptor corepressor and coactivator, receptor-interacting protein 140, provide a strong impetus to further explore the multifaceted role of B6 in carcinogenesis and human health. (Link)

Vitamin B6 intake and supplementation improve some immune functions in vitamin B6-deficient humans and experimental animals. (Link)

Recent work in animal models suggests that vitamin B6 deficiency during gestation and lactation alters the function of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, a subtype of receptors of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system thought to play an important role in learning and memory. (Link)

Several studies have demonstrated that psychiatric symptoms such as depression, mood swings, and aggression may be ameliorated by supplementation with broad-based nutrient formulas containing vitamins, minerals, and sometimes essential fatty acids. (Link)

B-12

Preventing cell death induced by carbonyl stress, oxidative stress, or mitochondrial toxins with vitamin B anti‐AGE agents. (Link)

Vitamin B12 supplementation with antidepressants significantly improved depressive symptoms in our cohort. (Link)

In community-dwelling older women, metabolically significant vitamin B(12)deficiency is associated with a twofold risk of severe depression. (Link)

The vitamin B12 level and the probability of recovery from major depression may be positively associated. (Link)

Low VitB12 concentrations within the normal range are associated with poorer memory performance, which is an effect that is partially mediated by the reduced microstructural integrity of the hippocampus. (Link)

Vitamin B12 is a particularly important vitamin for women of childbearing age and for older people, however, adequate vitamin B12 status over the whole of the lifecycle is needed for optimal health. (Link)

Complete overview of B-12 (Link)

Lacunar stroke patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (N = 13) reported significantly more fatigue (90.7 versus 59.4; p = .001) and depressive symptoms (6.62 versus 3.89; p<.05) than those without. (Link)

Vitamin B-12 deficiency is associated with dementia and low cognitive function. (Link)

MeCbl improved nerve conduction, promoted the regeneration of injured nerves, and inhibited ectopic spontaneous discharges of injured primary sensory neurons. (Link)

Folic acid and vitamin B12 may have roles in the prevention of disorders of CNS development, mood disorders, and dementias, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in elderly people. (Link)

These results suggest that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 vary with progression of crush-induced peripheral nerve injury, and supplementation of these vitamins in the acute period may be beneficial for acceleration of nerve regeneration. (Link)

These findings provide new insight into the neurotrophic effects of dexamethasone and vitamin B12 and support the application of these agents in clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injury. (Link)