Cortigon Research Review

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Cortigon Research Review

Phosphatidylserine

Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21103034

 Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20523044


Effect of Phosphatidylserine on Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/107142


Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1633433


Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1609044


Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1325348


The effects of IQPLUS Focus on cognitive function, mood and endocrine response before and following acute exercise.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22017963


Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16394955


The effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21807480


The effect of phosphatidylserine administration on memory and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23495677


The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2217563/


An open trial of plant-source derived phosphatydilserine for treatment of age-related cognitive decline.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11201936


Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20523044


Influence of phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance and cortical activity after induced stress.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18616866

 

Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17457961

 

L-Carnitine Tartrate

Acetyl-L-carnitine improves cognitive functions in severe hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized and controlled clinical trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870121


Oral acetyl-L-carnitine therapy reduces fatigue in overt hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21310833


Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism during exercise after oral carnitine supplementation in humans.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19164828


Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18357530


Placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial on the use of L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine, or combined L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16169400


Safety and efficacy of clomiphene citrate and L-carnitine in idiopathic male infertility: a comparative study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20845296


A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined l-carnitine and l-acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15193480


Use of carnitine therapy in selected cases of male factor infertility: a double-blind crossover trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12568837


Ameliorating hypertension and insulin resistance in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk: effects of acetyl-L-carnitine therapy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19620516


Effects of exercise intensity and altered substrate availability on cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise after oral carnitine supplementation in athletes.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21813919


Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on insulin sensitivity indices in response to glucose feeding in lean and overweight/obese males.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20963457


Levocarnitine administration in elderly subjects with rapid muscle fatigue: effect on body composition, lipid profile and fatigue.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12875611

 

L-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18065594


Acetyl L-carnitine (ALC) treatment in elderly patients with fatigue.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17658628


L-Carnitine in the treatment of fatigue in adult celiac disease patients: a pilot study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17693145


Exploratory open label, randomized study of acetyl- and propionylcarnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15039515


Ameliorating hypertension and insulin resistance in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk: effects of acetyl-L-carnitine therapy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19620516


L-carnitine supplementation to diet: a new tool in treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis--a randomized and controlled clinical trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20068559


Caloric restriction and L-carnitine administration improves insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired glucose metabolism.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20467011


L-Carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11788381


Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19341458

Long-term glycine propionyl-l-carnitine supplemention and paradoxical effects on repeated anaerobic sprint performance.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20979659


l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20045157


Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine modulates lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in human subjects.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20209464

 

Oxidative stress in response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing: influence of exercise training and carnitine supplementation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19266389


Comparison of pre-workout nitric oxide stimulating dietary supplements on skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, blood nitrate/nitrite, lipid peroxidation, and upper body exercise performance in resistance trained men.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20459623


A prospective double-blind, randomized clinical trial of levocarnitine to treat autism spectrum disorders.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21629200


Acetyl-L-carnitine for alcohol craving and relapse prevention in anhedonic alcoholics: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20595193


Androgenic responses to resistance exercise: effects of feeding and L-carnitine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16826026


Single dose administration of L-carnitine improves antioxidant activities in healthy subjects.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21701126


Effects of L-carnitine on oxidative stress responses in patients with renal disease.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20216464


Efficacy of carnitine in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12213433


Effects of carnitine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation and vascular inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal in healthy young adults.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18993165


Clinical outcomes and low-dose levocarnitine supplementation in psychiatric inpatients with documented hypocarnitinemia: a retrospective chart review.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20098226


L-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18065594


Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21224234


Comparison of the effects of acetyl L-carnitine and amantadine for the treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: results of a pilot, randomised, double-blind, crossover trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14759641


Propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and niacin in sexual medicine: a nutraceutical approach to erectile dysfunction.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21966881

 

Ginkgo Leaf Extract

Ginkgo biloba special extract in dementia with neuropsychiatric features. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17341003

 

Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8741021

 

A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of tanakan in the treatment of idiopathic cognitive impairment in the elderly
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hup.470020305/abstract


Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Ginkgo biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23196025


Effect of Western medicine therapy assisted by Ginkgo biloba tablet on vascular cognitive impairment of none dementia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22840457


Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in dementia with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of a daily dose of 240 mg.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22459264


Efficacy and tolerability of a once daily formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: results from a randomised controlled trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22086747


Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R), donepezil or both combined in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, double-blind, exploratory trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19347685


Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17457961


Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15378664


An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10890330


Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteers.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21802920


A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12404671


Phase II study of Ginkgo biloba in irradiated brain tumor patients: effect on cognitive function, quality of life, and mood.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22700031


Safety and effectiveness of a traditional ginkgo fresh plant extract - results from a clinical trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19657199


Reduction of rise in blood pressure and cortisol release during stress by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in healthy volunteers.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12369732


Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to healthy young adults.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12020739


Cognitive performance, SPECT, and blood viscosity in elderly non-demented people using Ginkgo biloba.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12905098

 

Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteers.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21802920


Acute, dose-dependent cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng and their combination in healthy young volunteers: differential interactions with cognitive demand.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12404705


Short-term effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on peripapillary retinal blood flow in normal tension glaucoma.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21976939


Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocity.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10385132


Polysomnographic effects of adjuvant ginkgo biloba therapy in patients with major depression medicated with trimipramine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11302564

 

The effect of Li 1370, extract of Ginkgo biloba, on REM sleep in humans.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11518478


Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in dementia with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of a daily dose of 240 mg.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22459264


Efficacy and tolerability of a once daily formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: results from a randomised controlled trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22086747


Ginkgo biloba for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a double blind, randomized controlled trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19815048


Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder with anxious mood: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16808927


Effects of Ginkgo biloba on cerebral blood flow assessed by quantitative MR perfusion imaging: a pilot study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21061003


A new ginkgo fresh plant extract increases microcirculation and radical scavenging activity in elderly patients.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22120894


Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and its Val66Met gene polymorphism predict tardive dyskinesia treatment response to Ginkgo biloba.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22695185


A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11775047


The effect of extract of ginkgo biloba addition to olanzapine on therapeutic effect and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with schizophrenia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16401239


A placebo-controlled study of extract of ginkgo biloba added to clozapine in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18545061


Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on preexisting visual field damage in normal tension glaucoma.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12578781


Clinical efficacy comparison of anti-wrinkle cosmetics containing herbal flavonoids.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20412217

 

Choline Bitartrate

The decline in serum choline concentration in humans during and after surgery is associated with the elevation of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin and β-endorphin concentrations

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304394002001714

 

Relations between dietary choline or lecithin intake, serum choline levels, and various metabolic indices
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0026049578901397


Choline in anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Health Study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19656836


Choline attenuates immune inflammation and suppresses oxidative stress in patients with asthma
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0171298509001521


Effect of stress on choline acetyltransferase activity of the brain and the adrenal of the rat.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1547857


Vitamin B: Choline intake improves memory and attention-holding capacity, experts say
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130711103239.htm


Effect of CDP-choline on learning and memory processes in rodents.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1494300

 

Inositol

Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of inositol treatment for panic disorder.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7793450


Effect of inositol on bulimia nervosa and binge eating.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262515


Double-blind, controlled, crossover trial of inositol versus fluvoxamine for the treatment of panic disorder.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11386498


Inositol treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8780431


Inositol 6 g daily may be effective in depression but not in schizophrenia
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hup.470080109/abstract


Inositol as an add-on treatment for bipolar depression.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11254020


Treatment-resistant bipolar depression: a STEP-BD equipoise randomized effectiveness trial of antidepressant augmentation with lamotrigine, inositol, or risperidone.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16449473


Double-blind, controlled trial of inositol treatment of depression.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7726322


Myo-inositol in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22031267


Controlled trials of inositol in psychiatry.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9169302

 

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