Peer-Reviewed Studies & Health References for our Thermo Philosophy Behind UMZU Supplements

References


Micronutrients


  1. Adams, Kelly M., Karen C. Lindell, Martin Kohlmeier, and Steven H. Zeisel. 2006. “Status of Nutrition Education in Medical Schools.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (4): 941S – 944S.
  2. Adams, Kelly M., Martin Kohlmeier, and Steven H. Zeisel. 2010. “Nutrition Education in U.S. Medical Schools: Latest Update of a National Survey.” Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 85 (9): 1537–42.
  3. Frantz, David J., Craig Munroe, Stephen A. McClave, and Robert Martindale. 2011. “Current Perception of Nutrition Education in U.S. Medical Schools.” Current Gastroenterology Reports 13 (4): 376–79.
  4. Danek, Robin L., Kathryn L. Berlin, Gabi N. Waite, and Roy W. Geib. 2017. “Perceptions of Nutrition Education in the Current Medical School Curriculum.” Family Medicine 49 (10): 803–6.
  5. Castillo, Marigold, Ronald Feinstein, James Tsang, and Martin Fisher. 2016. “Basic Nutrition Knowledge of Recent Medical Graduates Entering a Pediatric Residency Program.” International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 28 (4): 357–61.
  6. Gramlich, Leah M., Dana Lee Olstad, Roseanne Nasser, Laki Goonewardene, Maitreyi Raman, Sheila Innis, Sonja Wicklum, et al. 2010. “Medical Students’ Perceptions of Nutrition Education in Canadian Universities.” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme 35 (3): 336–43.
  7. Flegal KM, Kruszon-Moran D, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2016;315(21):2284–2291.
  8. Ogden C, Carroll MD, Lawman, HG, Fryar CD, Kruszon-Moran D, et al. Trends in obesity among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988- 1994 through 2013- 2014. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2016;315(21):2292–2299. 
  9. Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults aged 20 and over: United States, 1960–1962 through 2011–2014. National Center for Health Statistics Data, Health E-Stats, July 2016.
  10. Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 2–19 years: United States, 1963–1965 through 2013–2014. National Center for Health Statistics Data, Health E-Stats, July 2016.
  11. Antognoli, Elizabeth L., Eileen L. Seeholzer, Heidi Gullett, Brigid Jackson, Samantha Smith, and Susan A. Flocke. 2017. “Primary Care Resident Training for Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Counseling: A Mixed-Methods Study.” Health Promotion Practice 18 (5): 672–80.
  12. Kushner, Robert F. 2016. “Providing Nutritional Care in the Office Practice: Teams, Tools, and Techniques.” The Medical Clinics of North America 100 (6): 1157–68.
  13. Kolasa, Kathryn M., and Katherine Rickett. 2010. “Barriers to Providing Nutrition Counseling Cited by Physicians: A Survey of Primary Care Practitioners.” Nutrition in Clinical Practice: Official Publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 25 (5): 502–9.
  14. Devries, Stephen, James E. Dalen, David M. Eisenberg, Victoria Maizes, Dean Ornish, Arti Prasad, Victor Sierpina, Andrew T. Weil, and Walter Willett. 2014. “A Deficiency of Nutrition Education in Medical Training.” The American Journal of Medicine 127 (9): 804–6.
  15. Vetter, Marion L., Sharon J. Herring, Minisha Sood, Nirav R. Shah, and Adina L. Kalet. 2008. “What Do Resident Physicians Know about Nutrition? An Evaluation of Attitudes, Self-Perceived Proficiency and Knowledge.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 27 (2): 287–98.
  16. Bacon, Francis. 1902. Novum Organum. P. F. Collier.
  17. “Micronutrient: Meaning of Micronutrient by Lexico.” Lexico Dictionaries | English, Lexico Dictionaries, www.lexico.com/definition/micronutrient.
  18. Harvard Health Publishing. “Micronutrients Have Major Impact on Health.” Harvard Health, www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/micronutrients-have-major-impact-on-health.
  19. Lewis, James L., et al. “Hypocalcemia (Low Level of Calcium in the Blood) - Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders.” Merck Manuals Consumer Version, Merck Manuals, www.merckmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/electrolyte-balance/hypocalcemia-low-level-of-calcium-in-the-blood.
  20. Begic-Karup, S., B. Wagner, W. Raber, B. Schneider, A. Hamwi, W. Waldhäusl, and H. Vierhapper. 2001. “Serum Calcium in Thyroid Disease.” Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 113 (1-2): 65–68.
  21. Fong, Jeremy, and Aliya Khan. 2012. “Hypocalcemia: Updates in Diagnosis and Management for Primary Care.” Canadian Family Physician Medecin de Famille Canadien 58 (2): 158–62.
  22. Nordholm, Anders, Maria L. Mace, Eva Gravesen, Klaus Olgaard, and Ewa Lewin. 2015. “A Potential Kidney-Bone Axis Involved in the Rapid Minute-to-Minute Regulation of Plasma Ca2+.” BMC Nephrology 16 (March): 29.
  23. Al Raiisi, Fatma, Derek Stewart, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Teresa M. Salgado, Moustafa Fahmy Mohamed, and Scott Cunningham. 2019. “Clinical Pharmacy Practice in the Care of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Systematic Review.” International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 41 (3): 630–66.
  24. Duda, Johanna, Christina Pötschke, and Birgit Liss. 2016. “Converging Roles of Ion Channels, Calcium, Metabolic Stress, and Activity Pattern of Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons in Health and Parkinson’s Disease.” Journal of Neurochemistry 139 Suppl 1 (October): 156–78.
  25. Cosman, F., S. J. de Beur, M. S. LeBoff, E. M. Lewiecki, B. Tanner, S. Randall, R. Lindsay, and National Osteoporosis Foundation. 2014. “Clinician’s Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis.” Osteoporosis International: A Journal Established as Result of Cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA 25 (10): 2359–81.
  26. Cizza, Giovanni, Svetlana Primma, and Gyorgy Csako. 2009. “Depression as a Risk Factor for Osteoporosis.” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM 20 (8): 367–73.
  27. Bröer, Stefan, and Angelika Bröer. 2017. “Amino Acid Homeostasis and Signalling in Mammalian Cells and Organisms.” Biochemical Journal 474 (12): 1935–63.
  28. National Research Council (US) Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. 1989. Protein and Amino Acids. National Academies Press (US).
  29. Hou, Yongqing, Yulong Yin, and Guoyao Wu. 2015. “Dietary Essentiality of ‘Nutritionally Non-Essential Amino Acids’ for Animals and Humans.” Experimental Biology and Medicine 240 (8): 997–1007.
  30. Meijer, Alfred J., Séverine Lorin, Edward F. Blommaart, and Patrice Codogno. 2015. “Regulation of Autophagy by Amino Acids and MTOR-Dependent Signal Transduction.” Amino Acids 47 (10): 2037–63.
  31. Bender, David A. 2003. Nutritional Biochemistry of the Vitamins. Cambridge University Press.
  32. O’Mahony, S. M., G. Clarke, Y. E. Borre, T. G. Dinan, and J. F. Cryan. 2015. “Serotonin, Tryptophan Metabolism and the Brain-Gut-Microbiome Axis.” Behavioural Brain Research 277 (January): 32–48.
  33. Keszthelyi, D., F. J. Troost, and A. A. M. Masclee. 2009. “Understanding the Role of Tryptophan and Serotonin Metabolism in Gastrointestinal Function.” Neurogastroenterology and Motility: The Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 21 (12): 1239–49.
  34. Xiao, Tong, Cheri M. Ackerman, Elizabeth C. Carroll, Shang Jia, Adam Hoagland, Jefferson Chan, Bao Thai, Christine S. Liu, Ehud Y. Isacoff, and Christopher J. Chang. 2018. “Copper Regulates Rest-Activity Cycles through the Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System.” Nature Chemical Biology 14 (7): 655–63.
  35. Williams, R. C., D. R. Baker, and J. A. Schmit. 1973. “Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins by High-Speed Ion-Exchange Chromatography.” Journal of Chromatographic Science 11 (12): 618–24.
  36. DeLuca, H. 2012. The Fat-Soluble Vitamins. Springer Science & Business Media.
  37. Ammerman, Clarence B., David P. Baker, and Austin J. Lewis. 1995. Bioavailability of Nutrients for Animals: Amino Acids, Minerals, Vitamins. Elsevier.
  38. Rucker, Robert B., Andrea J. Fascetti, and Carl L. Keen. 2008. “Trace Minerals.” In Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals, 663–93. Elsevier.
  39. Castillo-Durán, C., and F. Cassorla. 1999. “Trace Minerals in Human Growth and Development.” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM 12 (5 Suppl 2): 589–601.
  40. Milner, J. A. 1990. “Trace Minerals in the Nutrition of Children.” The Journal of Pediatrics 117 (2 Pt 2): S147–55.
  41. Mc Dowell, Lee R., Nancy Wilkinson, Rachel Madison, and Tara Felix. n.d. “Vitamins and Minerals Functioning as Antioxidants with Supplementation Considerations.” https://animal.ifas.ufl.edu/apps/dairymedia/RNS/2007/McDowell.pdf.
  42. Pitzer, Kenneth S., and Janice J. Kim. 1993. “Thermodynamics of Electrolytes.: IV. Activity and Osmotic Coefficients for Mixed Electrolytes.” In Molecular Structure and Statistical Thermodynamics, 1:413–19. World Scientific Series in 20th Century Chemistry. WORLD SCIENTIFIC.
  43. “Overview of Sodium’s Role in the Body - Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version.” n.d. Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Merck Manuals. Accessed March 9, 2020. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/electrolyte-balance/overview-of-sodium-s-role-in-the-body?query=sodium.
  44. “Overview of Potassium’s Role in the Body - Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version.” n.d. Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Merck Manuals. Accessed March 9, 2020. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/electrolyte-balance/overview-of-potassium-s-role-in-the-body?query=potassium.
  45. “Overview of Calcium’s Role in the Body - Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version.” n.d. Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Merck Manuals. Accessed March 9, 2020. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/electrolyte-balance/overview-of-calcium-s-role-in-the-body?query=calcium.
  46. “Overview of Magnesium’s Role in the Body - Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version.” n.d. Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Merck Manuals. Accessed March 9, 2020. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/electrolyte-balance/overview-of-magnesium-s-role-in-the-body?query=magnesium.
  47. “Overview of Phosphate’s Role in the Body - Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version.” n.d. Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Merck Manuals. Accessed March 9, 2020. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/electrolyte-balance/overview-of-phosphate-s-role-in-the-body.
  48. “Micronutrient Deficiency - an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics.” n.d. Accessed March 9, 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/micronutrient-deficiency.
  49. CDC. 2020. “Micronutrient Facts.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. March 4, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/micronutrient-malnutrition/micronutrients/index.html.
  50. Progress, Current, and Iron Deficiencies. n.d. “The Micronutrient Report.” https://www.nutritionintl.org/content/user_files/2017/06/The-Micronutrient-Report-Current-Progress-and-Trends-in-the-Control-of-Vitamin-A-Iodine-and-Iron-Deficiencies.pdf.
  51. “Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995–2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data.” n.d. Accessed March 9, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(13)70001-9.
  52. Remely, Marlene, Barbara Stefanska, Luca Lovrecic, Ulrich Magnet, and Alexander G. Haslberger. 2015. “Nutriepigenomics: The Role of Nutrition in Epigenetic Control of Human Diseases.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 18 (4): 328–33.
  53. Skeaff, Sheila A. 2011. “Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy: The Effect on Neurodevelopment in the Child.” Nutrients 3 (2): 265–73.
  54. “Sustainable Elimination Of Iodine Deficiency.” Unicef. https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Sustainable_Elimination_of_Iodine_Deficiency.pdf.
  55. Zimmermann, Michael B. 2009. “Iodine Deficiency.” Endocrine Reviews 30 (4): 376–408.
  56. “nutrition_report_2013.pdf.” Unicef. https://www.unicef.org/media/files/nutrition_report_2013.pdf.
  57. “WHO | Vitamin A Supplementation for Infants and Children 6-59 Months of Age.” 2018, July. https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/guidelines/vas_6to59_months/en/.
  58. Shah, Dheeraj, and H. P. S. Sachdev. n.d. “Zinc Deficiency in Pregnancy and Fetal Outcome.” https://doi.org/10.1301/nr.2006.jan.15-30.
  59. Molloy, Anne M., Peadar N. Kirke, Lawrence C. Brody, John M. Scott, and James L. Mills. 2008. “Effects of Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies during Pregnancy on Fetal, Infant, and Child Development.” Food and Nutrition Bulletin 29 (2 Suppl): S101–11; discussion S112–15.
  60. Sakuyama, Hiroe, Minami Katoh, Honoka Wakabayashi, Anthony Zulli, Peter Kruzliak, and Yoshio Uehara. 2016. “Influence of Gestational Salt Restriction in Fetal Growth and in Development of Diseases in Adulthood.” Journal of Biomedical Science 23 (January): 12.
  61. Mineral Resources International. 2019. “Significant Risks of Low Magnesium During Pregnancy | Mineral Resources International Inc.” Mineral Resources International Inc. May 15, 2019. https://www.mineralresourcesint.com/low-magnesium-during-pregnancy/.
  62. Mahadevan, Shriraam, V. Kumaravel, and R. Bharath. 2012. “Calcium and Bone Disorders in Pregnancy.” Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 16 (3): 358–63.
  63. Khayat, Samira, Hamed Fanaei, and Abdolhakim Ghanbarzehi. 2017. “Minerals in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Review Article.” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR 11 (9): QE01–05.
  64. Varsi, Kristin, Bjørn Bolann, Ingrid Torsvik, Tina Constanse Rosvold Eik, Paul Johan Høl, and Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen. 2017. “Impact of Maternal Selenium Status on Infant Outcome during the First 6 Months of Life.” Nutrients 9 (5). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050486.
  65. Ezzati, Majid, Alan D. Lopez, Anthony Rodgers, Stephen Vander Hoorn, Christopher J. L. Murray, and Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group. 2002. “Selected Major Risk Factors and Global and Regional Burden of Disease.” The Lancet 360 (9343): 1347–60.
  66. Caulfield, Laura E., Stephanie A. Richard, Juan A. Rivera, Philip Musgrove, and Robert E. Black. 2011. “Stunting, Wasting, and Micronutrient Deficiency Disorders.” In Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, edited by Dean T. Jamison, Joel G. Breman, Anthony R. Measham, George Alleyne, Mariam Claeson, David B. Evans, Prabhat Jha, Anne Mills, and Philip Musgrove. Washington (DC): World Bank.
  67. Bhan, M. K., H. Sommerfelt, and T. Strand. 2001. “Micronutrient Deficiency in Children.” The British Journal of Nutrition 85 Suppl 2 (May): S199–203.
  68. Shenkin, A. 2006. “Micronutrients in Health and Disease.” Postgraduate Medical Journal 82 (971): 559–67.
  69. Saklayen, Mohammad G. 2018. “The Global Epidemic of the Metabolic Syndrome.” Current Hypertension Reports 20 (2): 12.
  70. “General Information/Press Room | American Thyroid Association.” n.d. American Thyroid Association. Accessed March 9, 2020. https://www.thyroid.org/media-main/press-room/.
  71. Dunn, Donna, and Carla Turner. 2016. “Hypothyroidism in Women.” Nursing for Women’s Health 20 (1): 93–98.
  72. Calton, Jayson B. 2010. “Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiency in Popular Diet Plans.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 7 (June): 24.
  73. Akande, K. E., U. D. Doma, H. O. Agu, and H. M. Adamu. 2010. “Major Antinutrients Found in Plant Protein Sources: Their Effect on Nutrition.” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (8): 827–32.
  74. Lopez, H. Walter, Fanny Leenhardt, Charles Coudray, and Christian Remesy. 2002. “Minerals and Phytic Acid Interactions: Is It a Real Problem for Human Nutrition?” International Journal of Food Science & Technology 37 (7): 727–39.
  75. Masum Akond, A. S. M. Golam, Heath Crawford, Janelle Berthold, Zahirul I. Talukder, and Khwaja Hossain. 2011. “Minerals (Zn, Fe, Ca and Mg) and Antinutrient (Phytic Acid) Constituents in Common Bean.” American Journal of Food Technology 6 (3): 235–43.
  76. Gibson, Rosalind S., Karl B. Bailey, Michelle Gibbs, and Elaine L. Ferguson. 2010. “A Review of Phytate, Iron, Zinc, and Calcium Concentrations in Plant-Based Complementary Foods Used in Low-Income Countries and Implications for Bioavailability.” Food and Nutrition Bulletin 31 (2 Suppl): S134–46.
  77. Powell, J. J., R. Jugdaohsingh, and R. P. Thompson. 1999. “The Regulation of Mineral Absorption in the Gastrointestinal Tract.” The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58 (1): 147–53.
  78. Evans, W. J., and C. J. Martin. 1988. “Interactions of Mg(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) with Phytic Acid. VIII. A Calorimetric Study.” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 32 (4): 259–68.
  79. Zimmermann, Michael B., and Richard F. Hurrell. 2007. “Nutritional Iron Deficiency.” The Lancet 370 (9586): 511–20.
  80. Yadav, Alok Kumar, Preeti Sirohi, Saurabh Saraswat, Manjoo Rani, Manish Pratap Singh, Sameer Srivastava, and Nand K. Singh. 2018. “Inhibitory Mechanism on Combination of Phytic Acid with Methanolic Seed Extract of Syzygium Cumini and Sodium Chloride over Bacillus Subtilis.” Current Microbiology 75 (7): 849–56.
  81. Bohn, Torsten, Lena Davidsson, Thomas Walczyk, and Richard F. Hurrell. 2004. “Phytic Acid Added to White-Wheat Bread Inhibits Fractional Apparent Magnesium Absorption in Humans.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79 (3): 418–23.
  82. Cheryan, M. 1980. “Phytic Acid Interactions in Food Systems.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 13 (4): 297–335.
  83. Cowieson, A. J., T. Acamovic, and M. R. Bedford. 2004. “The Effects of Phytase and Phytic Acid on the Loss of Endogenous Amino Acids and Minerals from Broiler Chickens.” British Poultry Science 45 (1): 101–8.
  84. Gillooly, M., T. H. Bothwell, J. D. Torrance, A. P. MacPhail, D. P. Derman, W. R. Bezwoda, W. Mills, R. W. Charlton, and F. Mayet. 1983. “The Effects of Organic Acids, Phytates and Polyphenols on the Absorption of Iron from Vegetables.” The British Journal of Nutrition 49 (3): 331–42.
  85. Hallberg, L., M. Brune, and L. Rossander. 1989. “Iron Absorption in Man: Ascorbic Acid and Dose-Dependent Inhibition by Phytate.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49 (1): 140–44.
  86. Hallberg, L., L. Rossander, and A. B. Skånberg. 1987. “Phytates and the Inhibitory Effect of Bran on Iron Absorption in Man.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45 (5): 988–96.
  87. Hansen, M., B. Sandström, and B. Lönnerdal. 1996. “The Effect of Casein Phosphopeptides on Zinc and Calcium Absorption from High Phytate Infant Diets Assessed in Rat Pups and Caco-2 Cells.” Pediatric Research 40 (4): 547–52.
  88. Lönnerdal, B., A. S. Sandberg, B. Sandström, and C. Kunz. 1989. “Inhibitory Effects of Phytic Acid and Other Inositol Phosphates on Zinc and Calcium Absorption in Suckling Rats.” The Journal of Nutrition 119 (2): 211–14.
  89. Lonnerdal, Bo. 2002. “Phytic Acid-Trace Element (Zn, Cu, Mn) Interactions.” International Journal of Food Science & Technology 37 (7): 749–58.
  90. Ma, G., Y. Li, Y. Jin, F. Zhai, F. J. Kok, and X. Yang. 2007. “Phytate Intake and Molar Ratios of Phytate to Zinc, Iron and Calcium in the Diets of People in China.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61 (3): 368–74.
  91. Rukma Reddy, N., and Shridhar K. Sathe. 2001. “Food Phytates,” December. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=KtzLBQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA211&dq=inhibitory+effects+of+phytate&ots=JiMJQL2rCF&sig=5pZpEW2wTIRy8cxD_fluUJLn_aQ.
  92. Sandberg, Ann-Sofie. 2002. “Bioavailability of Minerals in Legumes.” The British Journal of Nutrition 88 Suppl 3 (December): S281–85.
  93. Sandberg, Ann-Sofie, Mats Brune, Nils-Gunnar Carlsson, Leif Hallberg, Erika Skoglund, and Lena Rossander-Hulthén. 1999. “Inositol Phosphates with Different Numbers of Phosphate Groups Influence Iron Absorption in Humans.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (2): 240–46.
  94. Woyengo, Tofuko A., Aaron J. Cowieson, Olayiwola Adeola, and Charles M. Nyachoti. 2009. “Ileal Digestibility and Endogenous Flow of Minerals and Amino Acids: Responses to Dietary Phytic Acid in Piglets.” The British Journal of Nutrition 102 (3): 428–33.
  95. Zhou, J. R., and J. W. Erdman Jr. 1995. “Phytic Acid in Health and Disease.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 35 (6): 495–508.
  96. Bohn, Torsten, Lena Davidsson, Thomas Walczyk, and Richard F. Hurrell. 2004. “Phytic Acid Added to White-Wheat Bread Inhibits Fractional Apparent Magnesium Absorption in Humans.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79 (3): 418–23.
  97. Yadav, Alok Kumar, Preeti Sirohi, Saurabh Saraswat, Manjoo Rani, Manish Pratap Singh, Sameer Srivastava, and Nand K. Singh. 2018. “Inhibitory Mechanism on Combination of Phytic Acid with Methanolic Seed Extract of Syzygium Cumini and Sodium Chloride over Bacillus Subtilis.” Current Microbiology 75 (7): 849–56.
  98. Yadav, Alok Kumar, Preeti Sirohi, Saurabh Saraswat, Manjoo Rani, Manish Pratap Singh, Sameer Srivastava, and Nand K. Singh. 2018. “Inhibitory Mechanism on Combination of Phytic Acid with Methanolic Seed Extract of Syzygium Cumini and Sodium Chloride over Bacillus Subtilis.” Current Microbiology 75 (7): 849–56.
  99. Cheryan, M. 1980. “Phytic Acid Interactions in Food Systems.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 13 (4): 297–335.
  100. Gupta, Raj Kishor, Shivraj Singh Gangoliya, and Nand Kumar Singh. 2015. “Reduction of Phytic Acid and Enhancement of Bioavailable Micronutrients in Food Grains.” Journal of Food Science and Technology 52 (2): 676–84.
  101. Hunt, Janet R. 2003. “Bioavailability of Iron, Zinc, and Other Trace Minerals from Vegetarian Diets.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78 (3 Suppl): 633S – 639S.
  102. Singh, Madhav, and A. D. Krikorian. 1982. “Inhibition of Trypsin Activity in Vitro by Phytate.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 30 (4): 799–800.
  103. Knuckles, B. E., and A. A. Betschart. 1987. “Effect of Phytate and Other Myo-Inositol Phosphate Esters on α-Amylase Digestion of Starch.” Journal of Food Science 52 (3): 719–21.
  104. Khan, Argha, and Koushik Ghosh. 2013. “Phytic Acid-Induced Inhibition of Digestive Protease and α-Amylase in Three Indian Major Carps: An in Vitro Study : INHIBITION OF CARP DIGESTIVE ENZYMES BY PHYTIC ACID.” Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 44 (6): 853–59.
  105. Knuckles, B. E., D. D. Kuzmicky, and A. A. Betschart. 1985. “Effect of Phytate and Partially Hydrolyzed Phytate on in Vitro Protein Digestibility.” Journal of Food Science 50 (4): 1080–82.
  106. Thompson, L. U., C. L. Button, and D. J. Jenkins. 1987. “Phytic Acid and Calcium Affect the in Vitro Rate of Navy Bean Starch Digestion and Blood Glucose Response in Humans.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46 (3): 467–73.
  107. Ilelaboye, N. O. A., and O. O. Pikuda. 2009. “Determination of Minerals and Anti-Nutritional Factors of Some Lesser-Known Crop Seeds.” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (10): 1652–56.
  108. Kitts, W. D., A. J. Wood, E. Swierstra, and V. C. Brink. 1959. “THE ESTROGEN-LIKE SUBSTANCES IN CERTAIN LEGUMES AND GRASSES: I. THE QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF SUCH SUBSTANCES IN RED CLOVER AND OATS.” Canadian Journal of Animal Science 39 (1): 6–13.
  109. D’Mello, J. P. F. 1992. “Chemical Constraints to the Use of Tropical Legumes in Animal Nutrition.” Animal Feed Science and Technology 38 (2): 237–61.
  110. “Office of Dietary Supplements - Magnesium.” NIH. Accessed March 10, 2020. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/.
  111. Rude RK. Magnesium. In: Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, Cragg GM, Levine M, Moss J, White JD, eds. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2010:527-37.
  112. Rude RK. Magnesium. In: Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th ed. Baltimore, Mass: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012:159-75
  113. Kubota, Takeshi, Yutaka Shindo, Kentaro Tokuno, Hirokazu Komatsu, Hiroto Ogawa, Susumu Kudo, Yoshiichiro Kitamura, Koji Suzuki, and Kotaro Oka. 2005. “Mitochondria Are Intracellular Magnesium Stores: Investigation by Simultaneous Fluorescent Imagings in PC12 Cells.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1744 (1): 19–28.
  114. Vitale, B. Y. J. J., M. Nakamura, and D. M. Hegsted. n.d. “THE EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY ON OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION”.” https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c922/c4b15c1875e4d4cc947b351e54560b78812c.pdf.
  115. Weber, G., M. A. Lea, H. J. Convery, and N. B. Stamm. 1967. “Regulation of Gluconeogenesis and Glycolysis: Studies of Mechanisms Controlling Enzyme Activity.” Advances in Enzyme Regulation 5: 257–300.
  116. Rosanoff, Andrea, Connie M. Weaver, and Robert K. Rude. 2012. “Suboptimal Magnesium Status in the United States: Are the Health Consequences Underestimated?” Nutrition Reviews 70 (3): 153–64.
  117. Isao Saito, MD, PhD; Koutatsu Maruyama, PhD; Eri Eguchi, PhD; Tadahiro Kato, MD, PhD; Ryoichi Kawamura, MD, PhD; Yasunori Takata, MD, PhD; Hiroshi Onuma, MD, PhD; Haruhiko Osawa, MD, PhD; Takeshi Tanigawa, MD, PhD. “Low Heart Rate Variability and Sympathetic Dominance Modifies the Association Between Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome” Circ J doi:10.1253/circj.CJ-17-0192. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/circj/advpub/0/advpub_CJ-17-0192/_pdf.
  118. Okazaki Ryo. 2018. “[Body weight and bone/calcium metabolism. Obesity and vitamin D.].” Clinical calcium 28 (7): 947–56.
  119. Jafari, Tina, Elham Faghihimani, Awat Feizi, Bijan Iraj, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Aziz A. Fallah, and Gholamreza Askari. 2016. “Effects of Vitamin D-Fortified Low Fat Yogurt on Glycemic Status, Anthropometric Indexes, Inflammation, and Bone Turnover in Diabetic Postmenopausal Women: A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial.” Clinical Nutrition 35 (1): 67–76.
  120. Via, Michael. 2012. “The Malnutrition of Obesity: Micronutrient Deficiencies That Promote Diabetes.” ISRN Endocrinology 2012 (March): 103472.
  121. Kaidar-Person, Orit, Benjamin Person, Samuel Szomstein, and Raul J. Rosenthal. 2008. “Nutritional Deficiencies in Morbidly Obese Patients: A New Form of Malnutrition? Part A: Vitamins.” Obesity Surgery 18 (7): 870–76.
  122. Strohmayer, Erika, Michael A. Via, and Robert Yanagisawa. 2010. “Metabolic Management Following Bariatric Surgery.” The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York 77 (5): 431–45.
  123. Pittas, Anastassios G., Joseph Lau, Frank B. Hu, and Bess Dawson-Hughes. 2007. “The Role of Vitamin D and Calcium in Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 92 (6): 2017–29.
  124. Bourlon PM, Billaudel B, Faure-Dussert A. Influence of vitamin D3 deficiency and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on de novo insulin biosynthesis in the islets of the rat endocrine pancreas. Journal of Endocrinology. 1999;160(1):87–95.
  125. Norman AW, Frankel BJ, Heldt AM, Grodsky GM. Vitamin D deficiency inhibits pancreatic secretion of insulin. Science. 1980;209(4458):823–825.
  126. Tanaka Y, Seino Y, Ishida M, et al. Effect of vitamin D3 on the pancreatic secretion of insulin and somatostatin. Acta Endocrinologica. 1984;105(4):528–533.
  127. Brock KE, Huang W-Y, Fraser DR, et al. Diabetes prevalence is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in US middle-aged Caucasian men and women: a cross-sectional analysis within the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial. British Journal of Nutrition. 2011;106(3):339–344. 
  128. Grimnes G, Emaus N, Joakimsen RM, et al. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in the Tromsø Study 1994-95 and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus during 11 years of follow-up. Diabetic Medicine. 2010;27(10):1107–1115. 
  129. Isaia G, Giorgino R, Adami S. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in female type 2 diabetic population. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(8):p. 1496.
  130. Scragg R, Holdaway I, Singh V, Metcalf P, Baker J, Dryson E. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels decreased in impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 1995;27(3):181–188. 
  131. Scragg R, Sowers M, Bell C. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diabetes, and ethnicity in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(12):2813–2818. 
  132. Tahrani AA, Ball A, Shepherd L, Rahim A, Jones AF, Bates A. The prevalence of vitamin D abnormalities in South Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the UK. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2010;64(3):351–355.
  133. Behall KM, Schofield DJ, Hallfrisch JG, Kelsay JL, Reiser S. Seasonal variation in plasma glucose and hormone levels in adult men and women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1984;40(6):1352–1356.
  134. Ishii H, Suzuki H, Baba T, Nakamura K, Watanabe T. Seasonal variation of glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(8):p. 1503. 
  135.  Pittas, Anastassios G., Joseph Lau, Frank B. Hu, and Bess Dawson-Hughes. 2007. “The Role of Vitamin D and Calcium in Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 92 (6): 2017–29.
  136. Wolden-Kirk, Heidi, Lut Overbergh, Henrik Thybo Christesen, Klaus Brusgaard, and Chantal Mathieu. 2011. “Vitamin D and Diabetes: Its Importance for Beta Cell and Immune Function.” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 347 (1-2): 106–20.
  137. Mitri, J., M. D. Muraru, and A. G. Pittas. 2011. “Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 (9): 1005–15.
  138. Nagpal J, Pande JN, Bhartia A. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the short-term effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men. Diabetic Medicine. 2009;26(1):19–27. 
  139. Pittas AG, Harris SS, Stark PC, Dawson-Hughes B. The effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood glucose and markers of inflammation in nondiabetic adults. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(4):980–986.
  140. von Hurst PR, Stonehouse W, Coad J. Vitamin D supplementation reduces insulin resistance in South Asian women living in New Zealand who are insulin resistant and vitamin D deficient-a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. British Journal of Nutrition. 2010;103(4):549–555.
  141. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic β cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glycemia in adults at high risk of diabetes: the Calcium and Vitamin D for Diabetes Mellitus (CaDDM) randomized controlled trial. Mitri J, Dawson-Hughes B, Hu FB, Pittas AG Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug; 94(2):486-94. 
  142. Daily consumption of vitamin D- or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Nikooyeh B, Neyestani TR, Farvid M, Alavi-Majd H, Houshiarrad A, Kalayi A, Shariatzadeh N, Gharavi A, Heravifard S, Tayebinejad N, Salekzamani S, Zahedirad M Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Apr; 93(4):764-71. 
  143. Mertz, W., and K. Schwarz. 1959. “Relation of Glucose Tolerance Factor to Impaired Intravenous Glucose Tolerance of Rats on Stock Diets.” The American Journal of Physiology 196 (3): 614–18.
  144. Schwarz, K., and W. Mertz. 1959. “Chromium(III) and the Glucose Tolerance Factor.” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 85 (November): 292–95.
  145. Brown, R. O., S. Forloines-Lynn, R. E. Cross, and W. D. Heizer. 1986. “Chromium Deficiency after Long-Term Total Parenteral Nutrition.” Digestive Diseases and Sciences 31 (6): 661–64.
  146. Freund H, Atamian S, Fischer JE. Chromium deficiency during total parenteral nutrition. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1979;241(5):496–498. 
  147. Jeejeebhoy KN, Chu RC, Marliss EB, Greenberg GR, Bruce-Robertson A. Chromium deficiency, glucose intolerance, and neuropathy reversed by chromium supplementation, in a patient receiving long term total parenteral nutrition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1977;30(4):531–538. 
  148. Via M, Scurlock C, Raikhelkar J, Di Luozzo G, Mechanick JI. Chromium infusion reverses extreme insulin resistance in a cardiothoracic ICU patient. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2008;23(3):325–328.
  149. Ekmekcioglu, C., C. Prohaska, K. Pomazal, I. Steffan, G. Schernthaner, and W. Marktl. 2001. “Concentrations of Seven Trace Elements in Different Hematological Matrices in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes as Compared to Healthy Controls.” Biological Trace Element Research 79 (3): 205–19.
  150. Kazi, Tasneem Gul, Hassan Imran Afridi, Naveed Kazi, Mohammad Khan Jamali, Mohammad Bilal Arain, Nussarat Jalbani, and Ghulam Abbas Kandhro. 2008. “Copper, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Nickel, and Zinc Levels in Biological Samples of Diabetes Mellitus Patients.” Biological Trace Element Research 122 (1): 1–18.
  151. Rajpathak, Swapnil, Eric B. Rimm, Tricia Li, J. Steven Morris, Meir J. Stampfer, Walter C. Willett, and Frank B. Hu. 2004. “Lower Toenail Chromium in Men with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Compared with Healthy Men.” Diabetes Care 27 (9): 2211–16.
  152. Broadhurst, C. Leigh, and Philip Domenico. 2006. “Clinical Studies on Chromium Picolinate Supplementation in Diabetes Mellitus--a Review.” Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 8 (6): 677–87.
  153. “FDA Approves First Qualified Health Claim for Chromium Picolinate and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes; FDA Concludes That Chromium Picolinate Is Safe.” 2005. August 29, 2005. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20050829005447/en/FDA-Approves-Qualified-Health-Claim-Chromium-Picolinate.
  154. “Thiamin.” 2017. Mayo Clinic. October 25, 2017. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-thiamin/art-20366430.
  155. Bettendorff, Lucien, and Pierre Wins. 2009. “Thiamin Diphosphate in Biological Chemistry: New Aspects of Thiamin Metabolism, Especially Triphosphate Derivatives Acting Other than as Cofactors.” The FEBS Journal 276 (11): 2917–25.
  156. Page, G. L. J., D. Laight, and M. H. Cummings. 2011. “Thiamine Deficiency in Diabetes Mellitus and the Impact of Thiamine Replacement on Glucose Metabolism and Vascular Disease.” International Journal of Clinical Practice 65 (6): 684–90.
  157. McGuire, Shelley. 2011. “U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, January 2011.” Advances in Nutrition 2 (3): 293–94.
  158. Lonsdale, Derrick. 2006. “A Review of the Biochemistry, Metabolism and Clinical Benefits of Thiamin(e) and Its Derivatives.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM 3 (1): 49–59.
  159. Pincus, J. H., and K. Wells. 1972. “Regional Distribution of Thiamine-Dependent Enzymes in Normal and Thiamine-Deficient Brain.” Experimental Neurology 37 (3): 495–501.
  160. Lukienko, P. I., N. G. Mel’nichenko, I. V. Zverinskii, and S. V. Zabrodskaya. 2000. “Antioxidant Properties of Thiamine.” Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 130 (9): 874–76.
  161. Ascher, E., P. V. Gade, A. Hingorani, S. Puthukkeril, S. Kallakuri, M. Scheinman, and T. Jacob. 2001. “Thiamine Reverses Hyperglycemia-Induced Dysfunction in Cultured Endothelial Cells.” Surgery 130 (5): 851–58.
  162. “General Information/Press Room | American Thyroid Association.” n.d. American Thyroid Association. Accessed March 10, 2020. https://www.thyroid.org/media-main/press-room/.
  163. “Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid) | NIDDK.” n.d. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Accessed March 10, 2020. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/hypothyroidism.
  164. Kapil, Umesh. 2007. “Health Consequences of Iodine Deficiency.” Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal 7 (3): 267–72.
  165. “Iodine Deficiency | American Thyroid Association.” n.d. American Thyroid Association. Accessed March 10, 2020. https://www.thyroid.org/iodine-deficiency/.
  166. Hess, Sonja Y. 2010. “The Impact of Common Micronutrient Deficiencies on Iodine and Thyroid Metabolism: The Evidence from Human Studies.” Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 24 (1): 117–32.
  167. Wolde-Gebriel, Z., C. E. West, H. Gebru, A. S. Tadesse, T. Fisseha, P. Gabre, C. Aboye, G. Ayana, and J. G. Hautvast. 1993. “Interrelationship between Vitamin A, Iodine and Iron Status in Schoolchildren in Shoa Region, Central Ethiopia.” The British Journal of Nutrition 70 (2): 593–607.
  168. Zimmermann, Michael B., and Josef Köhrle. 2002. “The Impact of Iron and Selenium Deficiencies on Iodine and Thyroid Metabolism: Biochemistry and Relevance to Public Health.” Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association 12 (10): 867–78.
  169. Nishiyama, S., Y. Futagoishi-Suginohara, M. Matsukura, T. Nakamura, A. Higashi, M. Shinohara, and I. Matsuda. 1994. “Zinc Supplementation Alters Thyroid Hormone Metabolism in Disabled Patients with Zinc Deficiency.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 13 (1): 62–67.
  170. Hess, Sonja Y. 2010. “The Impact of Common Micronutrient Deficiencies on Iodine and Thyroid Metabolism: The Evidence from Human Studies.” Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 24 (1): 117–32.

Salt


  1. Wardener, H. E. de. 1999. “Salt Reduction and Cardiovascular Risk: The Anatomy of a Myth.” Journal of Human Hypertension 13 (1): 1–4.
  2. Harvard Health Publishing. n.d. “The Trouble with Excess Salt - Harvard Health.” Harvard Health. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/the-trouble-with-excess-salt.
  3. “Salt and Sodium | Nutrition.gov.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2020. https://www.nutrition.gov/topics/whats-food/salt-and-sodium.
  4. Neuman, William. 2010. “Citing Hazard, New York Says Hold the Salt.” The New York Times, January 11, 2010. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/11/business/11salt.html.
  5. “CDC - Salt - Sodium and the Institute of Medicine.” 2019. May 9, 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/salt/sodium_iom.htm.
  6. Peat, Raymond. n.d. “Salt, Energy, Metabolic Rate, and Longevity.” Accessed March 31, 2020. https://raypeat.com/articles/articles/salt.shtml.
  7. Gelpi, Adriane, and Joseph D. Tucker. 2015. “After Venus, Mercury: Syphilis Treatment in the UK before Salvarsan.” Sexually Transmitted Infections 91 (1): 68.
  8. Tampa, M., I. Sarbu, C. Matei, V. Benea, and S. R. Georgescu. 2014. “Brief History of Syphilis.” Journal of Medicine and Life 7 (1): 4–10.
  9. Maurage, C., M. C. Belin, M. Robert, M. Bremond, E. Autret, and J. C. Rolland. 1989. “[Rectal injury caused by a broken thermometer. Risks related to mercury].” Archives francaises de pediatrie 46 (4): 277–79.
  10. Chauhan, Ved, Syian Srikumar, Sarah Aamer, Mirazkar D. Pandareesh, and Abha Chauhan. 2017. “Methylmercury Exposure Induces Sexual Dysfunction in Male and Female Drosophila Melanogaster.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14 (10). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101108.
  11. Park, Jung-Duck, and Wei Zheng. 2012. “Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury.” Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health = Yebang Uihakhoe Chi 45 (6): 344–52.
  12. Sarikaya, Sezgin, Ozgur Karcioglu, Didem Ay, Asli Cetin, Can Aktas, and Mustafa Serinken. 2010. “Acute Mercury Poisoning: A Case Report.” BMC Emergency Medicine 10 (March): 7.
  13. Miller, Saul, Shelley Pallan, Azim S. Gangji, Dusan Lukic, and Catherine M. Clase. 2013. “Mercury-Associated Nephrotic Syndrome: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature.” American Journal of Kidney Diseases: The Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation 62 (1): 135–38.
  14. Sartin, J. S., and H. O. Perry. 1995. “From Mercury to Malaria to Penicillin: The History of the Treatment of Syphilis at the Mayo Clinic--1916-1955.” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 32 (2 Pt 1): 255–61.
  15. Tan, Siang Yong, and Yvonne Tatsumura. 2015. “Alexander Fleming (1881-1955): Discoverer of Penicillin.” Singapore Medical Journal 56 (7): 366–67.
  16. Bliss, A. Richard, Jr., and Robert W. Morrison. 1933. “A Comparative Study of Two Xanthine Diuretics *.” Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 22 (5): 404–10.
  17. “Acetazolamide: MedlinePlus Drug Information.” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682756.html.
  18. “Chlorothiazide: MedlinePlus Drug Information.” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682341.html.
  19. “Furosemide: MedlinePlus Drug Information.” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682858.html.
  20. “Ethacrynic Acid: MedlinePlus Drug Information.” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682857.html.
  21. Roush, George C., and Domenic A. Sica. 2016. “Diuretics for Hypertension: A Review and Update.” American Journal of Hypertension 29 (10): 1130–37.
  22. Casu, Gavino, and Pierluigi Merella. 2015. “Diuretic Therapy in Heart Failure - Current Approaches.” European Cardiology 10 (1): 42–47.
  23. Morrison, R. T. 1997. “Edema and Principles of Diuretic Use.” The Medical Clinics of North America 81 (3): 689–704.
  24. Wishnofsky, Max. 1964. “Use of Diuretics in the Treatment of Obesity.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 187 (5): 377–377.
  25. Olesen, C., C. S. de Vries, N. Thrane, T. M. MacDonald, H. Larsen, H. T. Sørensen, and EuroMAP Group. 2001. “Effect of Diuretics on Fetal Growth: A Drug Effect or Confounding by Indication? Pooled Danish and Scottish Cohort Data.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 51 (2): 153–57.
  26. Klemmer Philip, Grim Clarence E., and Luft Friedrich C. 2014. “Who and What Drove Walter Kempner?” Hypertension 64 (4): 684–88.
  27. Sakuyama, Hiroe, Minami Katoh, Honoka Wakabayashi, Anthony Zulli, Peter Kruzliak, and Yoshio Uehara. 2016. “Influence of Gestational Salt Restriction in Fetal Growth and in Development of Diseases in Adulthood.” Journal of Biomedical Science 23 (January): 12.
  28. Oppelaar, Jetta J., and Liffert Vogt. 2019. “Body Fluid-Independent Effects of Dietary Salt Consumption in Chronic Kidney Disease.” Nutrients 11 (11). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112779.
  29. Asayama, Kei, and Yutaka Imai. 2018. “The Impact of Salt Intake during and after Pregnancy.” Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 41 (1): 1–5.
  30. “The Long Term Effects of Advice to Cut down on Salt in Food on Deaths, Cardiovascular Disease and Blood Pressure in Adults.” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003656.pub2.
  31. “Intersalt: An International Study of Electrolyte Excretion and Blood Pressure. Results for 24 Hour Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group.” 1988. BMJ 297 (6644): 319–28.
  32. Hooper, L., C. Bartlett, G. Davey Smith, and S. Ebrahim. 2003. “Reduced Dietary Salt for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , no. 3: CD003656.
  33. Hypertension 25: 1144-1152, 1995: Low urinary sodium is associated with greater risk of myocardial infarction among treated hypertensive men. Alderman MH, Madhavan S, Cohen H, Sealey JE, Laragh JH
  34. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Lancet 351: 781-785, 1998: Dietary sodium intake and mortality, Alderman MH, Cohen H, Madhavan S.
  35. Life, the science of biology / William K. Purves, Gordon H. Orians, H. Craig Heller. 4th ed. C1995.
  36. Boundless. n.d. “ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate | Boundless Biology.” Accessed April 14, 2020. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/atp-adenosine-triphosphate/.
  37. Atchison, Douglas K., and William H. Beierwaltes. 2013. “The Influence of Extracellular and Intracellular Calcium on the Secretion of Renin.” Pflugers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology 465 (1): 59–69.
  38. “Cation - an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics.” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/cation.
  39. “Anion - an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics.” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/anion.
  40. “What Is an Ion?” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/vss/docs/propulsion/1-what-is-an-ion.html.
  41. “Salt - Chemistry Encyclopedia - Water, Uses, Examples, Metal, Gas, Uses.” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Ru-Sp/Salt.html.
  42. “Naming Salts (Ionic Compounds).” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. https://www.stolaf.edu/depts/chemistry/courses/toolkits/121/js/naming/salts.htm.
  43. “Saltiness - an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics.” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/nursing-and-health-professions/saltiness.
  44. “Ocean Island Basalt - an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics.” n.d. Accessed April 14, 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/ocean-island-basalt.
  45. Manrique, Camila, Guido Lastra, Michael Gardner, and James R. Sowers. 2009. “The Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System in Hypertension: Roles of Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress.” The Medical Clinics of North America 93 (3): 569–82.
  46. Remuzzi, Giuseppe, Norberto Perico, Manuel Macia, and Piero Ruggenenti. 2005. “The Role of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease.” Kidney International. Supplement, no. 99 (December): S57–65.
  47. Unger, Thomas, and Jun Li. 2004. “The Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Heart Failure.” Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System: JRAAS 5 Suppl 1 (September): S7–10.
  48. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2006;25(3):143-57. Increased sympathetic activity present in early hypertensive pregnancy is not lowered by plasma volume expansion. Metsaars WP, Ganzevoort W, Karemaker JM, Rang S, Wolf H.
  49. Reivich, M., A. Alavi, A. Wolf, J. Fowler, J. Russell, C. Arnett, R. R. MacGregor, C. Y. Shiue, H. Atkins, and A. Anand. 1985. “Glucose Metabolic Rate Kinetic Model Parameter Determination in Humans: The Lumped Constants and Rate Constants for [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and [11C]deoxyglucose.” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism: Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 5 (2): 179–92.
  50. Boden, Guenther. 2008. “Obesity and Free Fatty Acids.” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 37 (3): 635–46, viii – ix.
  51. Taylor, Rod S., Kate E. Ashton, Tiffany Moxham, Lee Hooper, and Shah Ebrahim. 2011. “Reduced Dietary Salt for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (Cochrane Review).” American Journal of Hypertension 24 (8): 843–53.
  52. O’Donnell, Martin J., Salim Yusuf, Andrew Mente, Peggy Gao, Johannes F. Mann, Koon Teo, Matthew McQueen, et al. 2011. “Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Risk of Cardiovascular Events.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 306 (20): 2229–38.
  53. Moyer, Melinda Wenner. 2011. “It’s Time to End the War on Salt.” Scientific American, July 8, 2011. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/its-time-to-end-the-war-on-salt/.
  54. Rousset, Bernard, Corinne Dupuy, Françoise Miot, and Jacques Dumont. 2015. “Chapter 2 Thyroid Hormone Synthesis And Secretion.” In Endotext, edited by Kenneth R. Feingold, Bradley Anawalt, Alison Boyce, George Chrousos, Kathleen Dungan, Ashley Grossman, Jerome M. Hershman, et al. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.
  55. Xavier, A. R., M. A. R. Garófalo, R. H. Migliorini, and I. C. Kettelhut. 2003. “Dietary Sodium Restriction Exacerbates Age-Related Changes in Rat Adipose Tissue and Liver Lipogenesis.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 52 (8): 1072–77.
  56. Horton, R., N. J. Rothwell, and M. J. Stock. 1988. “Chronic Inhibition of GABA Transaminase Results in Activation of Thermogenesis and Brown Fat in the Rat.” General Pharmacology 19 (3): 403–5.
  57. Dewasmes, G., N. Loos, S. Delanaud, D. Dewasmes, and A. Géloën. 2003. “Activation of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Increases Slow Wave Sleep in Rat.” Neuroscience Letters 339 (3): 207–10.
  58. Wang, Gordon, Brian Grone, Damien Colas, Lior Appelbaum, and Philippe Mourrain. 2011. “Synaptic Plasticity in Sleep: Learning, Homeostasis and Disease.” Trends in Neurosciences 34 (9): 452–63.
  59. Godek, Sandra Fowkes, Chris Peduzzi, Richard Burkholder, Steve Condon, Gary Dorshimer, and Arthur R. Bartolozzi. 2010. “Sweat Rates, Sweat Sodium Concentrations, and Sodium Losses in 3 Groups of Professional Football Players.” Journal of Athletic Training 45 (4): 364–71.
  60. The Salt Fix by Dr. James DiNicolantonio: 9780451496966 | PenguinRandomHouse.com: Books.







Sugar


  1. Brown, William Redman, Arild Edsten Hansen, George Oswald Burr, and Irvine McQuarrie. 1938. “Effects of Prolonged Use of Extremely Low-Fat Diet on an Adult Human Subject.” The Journal of Nutrition 16 (6): 511–24.
  2. Bacon, Francis. 1898. The Advancement of Learning. Macmillan & Company, Limited.
  3. Burton, Robert. 2008. On Being Certain: Believing You Are Right Even When You’re Not. 1st ed. St. Martin’s Press.
  4. Scientific American. 2008. “The Certainty Bias: A Potentially Dangerous Mental Flaw,” October 9, 2008. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-certainty-bias/.
  5. “William James.” 2014. August 18, 2014. https://www.giffordlectures.org/lecturers/william-james.
  6. Smith, William, and Rajendrani Mukhopadhyay. 2012. “Essential Fatty Acids: The Work of George and Mildred Burr.” The Journal of Biological Chemistry 287 (42): 35439–41.
  7. Bernays, Edward, and Mark Crispin Miller. 2004. Propaganda. Ig Publishing.
  8. “Obesity and Overweight.” n.d. Accessed November 13, 2020. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight.
  9. Ravnskov, Uffe, Michel de Lorgeril, David M. Diamond, Rokuro Hama, Tomohito Hamazaki, Björn Hammarskjöld, Niamh Hynes, et al. 2018. “LDL-C Does Not Cause Cardiovascular Disease: A Comprehensive Review of the Current Literature.” Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 11 (10): 959–70.
  10. Barclay, Alan W., and Jennie Brand-Miller. 2011. “The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe That Overweight and Obesity Have Increased.” Nutrients 3 (4): 491–504.
  11. Berg, Jeremy M., John L. Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer. 2002. Each Organ Has a Unique Metabolic Profile. W H Freeman.
  12. Golay, A., A. F. Allaz, Y. Morel, N. de Tonnac, S. Tankova, and G. Reaven. 1996. “Similar Weight Loss with Low- or High-Carbohydrate Diets.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63 (2): 174–78.
  13. Libretexts. 2016. “5.2: Carbohydrate Structures.” Libretexts. August 5, 2016. https://chem.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_Kentucky/UK%3A_CHE_103_-_Chemistry_for_Allied_Health_(Soult)/Chapters/Chapter_5%3A_Properties_of_Compounds/5.2%3A_Carbohydrate_Structures.
  14. “Carbohydrates.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://dlc.dcccd.edu/biology1-3/carbohydrates.
  15. Libretexts. 2017. “4.4: Nucleic Acids.” Libretexts. March 26, 2017. https://bio.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_California_Davis/BIS_2A%3A_Introductory_Biology_(Easlon)/Readings/04.4%3A_Nucleic_Acids.
  16. “Carbohydrates.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/1biochem/carbo5.html.
  17. “Gluconeogenesis.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/gluconeogenesis.
  18. Stone, Matt. 2010. “The Catecholamine Honeymoon - 180 Degree Health.” June 10, 2010. https://180degreehealth.com/the-catecholamine-honeymoon/.
  19. Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara, Robert N. Luben, Natasha Powell, Amit Bhaniani, Rajiv Chowdhury, Nicholas J. Wareham, Nita G. Forouhi, and Kay-Tee Khaw. 2014. “Dietary Intake of Carbohydrates and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Study.” The British Journal of Nutrition 111 (2): 342–52.
  20. Brundin, T., and J. Wahren. 1993. “Whole Body and Splanchnic Oxygen Consumption and Blood Flow after Oral Ingestion of Fructose or Glucose.” The American Journal of Physiology 264 (4 Pt 1): E504–13.
  21. Cozma, Adrian I., John L. Sievenpiper, Russell J. de Souza, Laura Chiavaroli, Vanessa Ha, D. David Wang, Arash Mirrahimi, et al. 2012. “Effect of Fructose on Glycemic Control in Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials.” Diabetes Care 35 (7): 1611–20.
  22. DeCasien, Alex R., Scott A. Williams, and James P. Higham. 2017. “Primate Brain Size Is Predicted by Diet but Not Sociality.” Nature Ecology & Evolution 1 (5): 112.
  23. Wikipedia contributors. 2021. “Frugivore.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. March 18, 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frugivore&oldid=1012820799.
  24. Team FPS. n.d. “Ray Peat, PhD on Thyroid, Temperature, Pulse, and TSH.” Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.functionalps.com/blog/2012/03/25/ray-peat-phd-on-thyroid-temperature-pulse-and-tsh/comment-page-1/.
  25. Kuoppala, Ali. n.d. “Thyroid Boosters: 6 Supplements to Increase T3 & T4.” Accessed March 31, 2021. https://anabolicmen.com/thyroid-supplements/.
  26. “Fructose as a Dieting Tool: 100g Fructose Per Day Exert Sign. Protein Sparing Effects & Ameliorate the Decline in Thyroid Hormones During Starvation Diet in the Obese.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://suppversity.blogspot.com/2014/10/fructose-as-dieting-tool-100g-fructose.html.
  27. Hendler, R., and A. A. Bonde. 1990. “Effects of Sucrose on Resting Metabolic Rate, Nitrogen Balance, Leucine Turnover and Oxidation during Weight Loss with Low Calorie Diets.” International Journal of Obesity 14 (11): 927–38.
  28. Gelfand, Robert A., and Robert S. Sherwin. "Nitrogen conservation in starvation revisited: Protein sparing with intravenous fructose." Metabolism 35.1 (1986): 37-44.
  29. Siyuan Xia, Ruiting Lin, Lingtao Jin, Liang Zhao, Hee-Bum Kang, Yaozhu Pan, Shuangping Liu, Guoqing Qian, Zhiyu Qian, Evmorfia Konstantakou, Baotong Zhang, Jin-Tang Dong, Young Rock Chung, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Taha Merghoub, Lu Zhou, Ragini R. Kudchadkar, David H. Lawson, Hanna J. Khoury, Fadlo R. Khuri, Lawrence H. Boise, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin H. Lee, Brian P. Pollack, Jack L. Arbiser, Jun Fan, Qun-Ying Lei, Jing Chen. Prevention of Dietary-Fat-Fueled Ketogenesis Attenuates BRAF V600E Tumor Growth. Cell Metabolism, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.12.010
  30. Pierotti, Marco A., Gabriella Sozzi, and Carlo M. Croce. 2003. Mechanisms of Oncogene Activation. BC Decker.
  31. Science X staff. 2010. “Researchers Find Leukemia Cells Metabolize Fat to Avoid Cell Death.” Medical Xpress. January 27, 2010. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2010-01-leukemia-cells-metabolize-fat-cell.html.
  32. Currie, Erin, Almut Schulze, Rudolf Zechner, Tobias C. Walther, and Robert V. Farese Jr. 2013. “Cellular Fatty Acid Metabolism and Cancer.” Cell Metabolism 18 (2): 153–61.
  33. Choi, Yeon-Kyung, and Keun-Gyu Park. 2018. “Targeting Glutamine Metabolism for Cancer Treatment.” Biomolecules & Therapeutics 26 (1): 19–28.
  34. “Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).” 2017. July 31, 2017. https://liverfoundation.org/for-patients/about-the-liver/diseases-of-the-liver/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease/.
  35. Anundi, I., J. King, D. A. Owen, H. Schneider, J. J. Lemasters, and R. G. Thurman. 1987. “Fructose Prevents Hypoxic Cell Death in Liver.” The American Journal of Physiology 253 (3 Pt 1): G390–96.
  36. Kuoppala, Ali. n.d. “Choline and Testosterone: Why Deficiency Hurts Hormones.” Accessed March 31, 2021. https://anabolicmen.com/choline-deficiency/.
  37. Best, C. H., and W. S. Hartroft. 1949. “Liver Damage Produced by Feeding Alcohol or Sugar and Its Prevention by Choline.” British Medical Journal 2 (4635): 1002–6, pl.
  38. Pan, Meihui, Arthur I. Cederbaum, Yuan-Li Zhang, Henry N. Ginsberg, Kevin Jon Williams, and Edward A. Fisher. 2004. “Lipid Peroxidation and Oxidant Stress Regulate Hepatic Apolipoprotein B Degradation and VLDL Production.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation 113 (9): 1277–87.
  39. Corbin, Karen D., and Steven H. Zeisel. 2012. “Choline Metabolism Provides Novel Insights into Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Its Progression.” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 28 (2): 159–65.
  40. Wallace, Taylor C., Michael McBurney, and Victor L. Fulgoni 3rd. 2014. “Multivitamin/mineral Supplement Contribution to Micronutrient Intakes in the United States, 2007-2010.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 33 (2): 94–102.
  41. “Liver Disease Statistics.” 2017. October 26, 2017. https://liverfoundation.org/liver-disease-statistics/.
  42. Harvey, Cliff J. D. C., Grant M. Schofield, and Micalla Williden. 2018. “The Use of Nutritional Supplements to Induce Ketosis and Reduce Symptoms Associated with Keto-Induction: A Narrative Review.” PeerJ 6 (March): e4488.
  43. Chidakel, A., D. Mentuccia, and F. S. Celi. 2005. “Peripheral Metabolism of Thyroid Hormone and Glucose Homeostasis.” Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association 15 (8): 899–903.
  44. Cahoreau, Claire, Danièle Klett, and Yves Combarnous. 2015. “Structure-Function Relationships of Glycoprotein Hormones and Their Subunits’ Ancestors.” Frontiers in Endocrinology 6 (February): 26.
  45. Spaulding, S. W., I. J. Chopra, R. S. Sherwin, and S. S. Lyall. 1976. “Effect of Caloric Restriction and Dietary Composition of Serum T3 and Reverse T3 in Man.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 42 (1): 197–200.
  46. McCarty, M. F. 1995. “Central Insulin May up-Regulate Thyroid Activity by Suppressing Neuropeptide Y Release in the Paraventricular Nucleus.” Medical Hypotheses 45 (2): 193–99.
  47. Wheless, James W. 2008. “History of the Ketogenic Diet.” Epilepsia 49 Suppl 8 (November): 3–5.
  48. Bisschop, P. H., H. P. Sauerwein, E. Endert, and J. A. Romijn. 2001. “Isocaloric Carbohydrate Deprivation Induces Protein Catabolism despite a Low T3-Syndrome in Healthy Men.” Clinical Endocrinology 54 (1): 75–80.
  49. Azizi, F. 1978. “Effect of Dietary Composition on Fasting-Induced Changes in Serum Thyroid Hormones and Thyrotropin.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 27 (8): 935–42.
  50. Burman, K. D., R. C. Dimond, G. S. Harvey, J. T. O’Brian, L. P. Georges, J. Bruton, F. D. Wright, and L. Wartofsky. 1979. “Glucose Modulation of Alterations in Serum Iodothyronine Concentrations Induced by Fasting.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 28 (4): 291–99.
  51. Burke, Louise M., Bente Kiens, and John L. Ivy. 2004. “Carbohydrates and Fat for Training and Recovery.” Journal of Sports Sciences 22 (1): 15–30.
  52. Langfort, J., R. Zarzeczny, W. Pilis, K. Nazar, and H. Kaciuba-Uścitko. 1997. “The Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Performance, Hormonal and Metabolic Responses to a 30-S Bout of Supramaximal Exercise.” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 76 (2): 128–33.
  53. Maughan, R. J., P. L. Greenhaff, J. B. Leiper, D. Ball, C. P. Lambert, and M. Gleeson. 1997. “Diet Composition and the Performance of High-Intensity Exercise.” Journal of Sports Sciences 15 (3): 265–75.
  54. Pinckaers, Philippe J. M., Tyler A. Churchward-Venne, David Bailey, and Luc J. C. van Loon. 2017. “Ketone Bodies and Exercise Performance: The Next Magic Bullet or Merely Hype?” Sports Medicine 47 (3): 383–91.
  55. Cox, Pete J., Tom Kirk, Tom Ashmore, Kristof Willerton, Rhys Evans, Alan Smith, Andrew J. Murray, et al. 2016. “Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes.” Cell Metabolism 24 (2): 256–68.
  56. Zinn, Caryn, Matthew Wood, Mikki Williden, Simon Chatterton, and Ed Maunder. 2017. “Ketogenic Diet Benefits Body Composition and Well-Being but Not Performance in a Pilot Case Study of New Zealand Endurance Athletes.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 14 (July): 22.
  57. Urbain, Paul, Lena Strom, Lena Morawski, Anja Wehrle, Peter Deibert, and Hartmut Bertz. 2017. “Impact of a 6-Week Non-Energy-Restricted Ketogenic Diet on Physical Fitness, Body Composition and Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Adults.” Nutrition & Metabolism 14 (February): 17.
  58. Burke, Louise M., Megan L. Ross, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Ida A. Heikura, Sara G. Forbes, Joanne G. Mirtschin, et al. 2017. “Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Impairs Exercise Economy and Negates the Performance Benefit from Intensified Training in Elite Race Walkers.” The Journal of Physiology 595 (9): 2785–2807.
  59. Phinney, Stephen D. 2004. “Ketogenic Diets and Physical Performance.” Nutrition & Metabolism 1 (1): 2.
  60. “High-Fat Diet Affects Physical and Memory Abilities.” 2009. August 13, 2009. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/high-fat-diet-affects-physical-and-memory-abilities.
  61. Tagliabue, Anna, Simona Bertoli, Claudia Trentani, Paola Borrelli, and Pierangelo Veggiotti. 2012. “Effects of the Ketogenic Diet on Nutritional Status, Resting Energy Expenditure, and Substrate Oxidation in Patients with Medically Refractory Epilepsy: A 6-Month Prospective Observational Study.” Clinical Nutrition 31 (2): 246–49.
  62. Harber, Matthew P., Simon Schenk, Ariel L. Barkan, and Jeffrey F. Horowitz. 2005. “Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction with High Protein Intake on Protein Metabolism and the Somatotropic Axis.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90 (9): 5175–81.
  63. Bravata, Dena M., Lisa Sanders, Jane Huang, Harlan M. Krumholz, Ingram Olkin, Christopher D. Gardner, and Dawn M. Bravata. 2003. “Efficacy and Safety of Low-Carbohydrate Diets: A Systematic Review.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 289 (14): 1837–50.
  64. Boden, Guenther, Karin Sargrad, Carol Homko, Maria Mozzoli, and T. Peter Stein. 2005. “Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Blood Glucose Levels, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.” Annals of Internal Medicine 142 (6): 403–11.
  65. Astrup, Arne, Arne Astrup, Benjamin Buemann, Anne Flint, and Anne Raben. 2002. “Low-Fat Diets and Energy Balance: How Does the Evidence Stand in 2002?” The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61 (2): 299–309.
  66. Yang, M. U., and T. B. Van Itallie. 1976. “Composition of Weight Lost during Short-Term Weight Reduction. Metabolic Responses of Obese Subjects to Starvation and Low-Calorie Ketogenic and Nonketogenic Diets.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation 58 (3): 722–30.
  67. Murphy, E. Angela, Kandy T. Velazquez, and Kyle M. Herbert. 2015. “Influence of High-Fat Diet on Gut Microbiota: A Driving Force for Chronic Disease Risk.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 18 (5): 515–20.
  68. Zhang, Mei, and Xiao-Jiao Yang. 2016. “Effects of a High Fat Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Gastrointestinal Diseases.” World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG 22 (40): 8905–9.
  69. Brown, G. K. 2000. “Glucose Transporters: Structure, Function and Consequences of Deficiency.” Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 23 (3): 237–46.
  70. Phinney, S. D., B. R. Bistrian, R. R. Wolfe, and G. L. Blackburn. 1983. “The Human Metabolic Response to Chronic Ketosis without Caloric Restriction: Physical and Biochemical Adaptation.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 32 (8): 757–68.
  71. Harber, Matthew P., Simon Schenk, Ariel L. Barkan, and Jeffrey F. Horowitz. 2005. “Alterations in Carbohydrate Metabolism in Response to Short-Term Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction.” American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 289 (2): E306–12.
  72. Sandu, Oana, Keying Song, Weijing Cai, Feng Zheng, Jaime Uribarri, and Helen Vlassara. 2005. “Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes in High-Fat-Fed Mice Are Linked to High Glycotoxin Intake.” Diabetes 54 (8): 2314–19.
  73. Kusunoki, M., G. J. Cooney, T. Hara, and L. H. Storlien. 1995. “Amelioration of High-Fat Feeding-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle with the Antiglucocorticoid RU486.” Diabetes 44 (6): 718–20.
  74. Ikemoto, S., Kimberly S. THOMPSONt, Mayumi Takahashi, H. Itakura, M. DANIEL LANEt, and O. Ezaki. 2005. “High Fat Diet-Induced Hyperglycemia : Prevention by Low Level Expression of a Glucose Transporter ( GLUT 4 ) Minigene in Transgenic Mice ( Insulin Resistance / Type 2 Diabetes ).” https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/7066b17637d4e5e007f521cd42d1fe8e6393f54a.
  75. Felber, J. P., E. Ferrannini, A. Golay, H. U. Meyer, D. Theibaud, B. Curchod, E. Maeder, E. Jequier, and R. A. DeFronzo. 1987. “Role of Lipid Oxidation in Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance of Obesity and Type II Diabetes.” Diabetes 36 (11): 1341–50.
  76. n.d. http://europepmc.org/article/med/7621976.
  77. Dobbins, Robert L., Lidia S. Szczepaniak, Jeff Myhill, Yoshifumi Tamura, Hiroshi Uchino, Adria Giacca, and J. Denis McGarry. 2002. “The Composition of Dietary Fat Directly Influences Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Rats.” Diabetes 51 (6): 1825–33.
  78. Bantle, J. P., J. E. Swanson, W. Thomas, and D. C. Laine. 1993. “Metabolic Effects of Dietary Sucrose in Type II Diabetic Subjects.” Diabetes Care 16 (9): 1301–5.
  79. Mithal, A., J-P Bonjour, S. Boonen, P. Burckhardt, H. Degens, G. El Hajj Fuleihan, R. Josse, et al. 2013. “Impact of Nutrition on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Performance in Older Adults.” Osteoporosis International: A Journal Established as Result of Cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA 24 (5): 1555–66.
  80. Hahn, T. J., L. R. Halstead, and D. C. DeVivo. 1979. “Disordered Mineral Metabolism Produced by Ketogenic Diet Therapy.” Calcified Tissue International 28 (1): 17–22.
  81. Hahn, T. J., L. R. Halstead, and D. C. DeVivo. 1979. “Disordered Mineral Metabolism Produced by Ketogenic Diet Therapy.” Calcified Tissue International 28 (1): 17–22.
  82. Bergqvist, A. G. Christina, Claire M. Chee, Lisa Lutchka, Jack Rychik, and Virginia A. Stallings. 2003. “Selenium Deficiency Associated with Cardiomyopathy: A Complication of the Ketogenic Diet.” Epilepsia 44 (4): 618–20.
  83. Fery, F., P. Bourdoux, J. Christophe, and E. O. Balasse. 1982. “Hormonal and Metabolic Changes Induced by an Isocaloric Isoproteinic Ketogenic Diet in Healthy Subjects.” Diabete & Metabolisme 8 (4): 299–305.
  84. Hamburg, Naomi M., Craig J. McMackin, Alex L. Huang, Sherene M. Shenouda, Michael E. Widlansky, Eberhard Schulz, Noyan Gokce, Neil B. Ruderman, John F. Keaney Jr, and Joseph A. Vita. 2007. “Physical Inactivity Rapidly Induces Insulin Resistance and Microvascular Dysfunction in Healthy Volunteers.” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 27 (12): 2650–56.
  85. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2713647/
  86. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpendo.00590.2009

PUFA


  1. Mercola, Joseph. 2017. Fat for Fuel: A Revolutionary Diet to Combat Cancer, Boost Brain Power, and Increase Your Energy. Hay House, Inc.
  2. Ramsey, Drew, and Tyler Graham. 2012. “How Vegetable Oils Replaced Animal Fats in the American Diet.” The Atlantic, April 26, 2012. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2012/04/how-vegetable-oils-replaced-animal-fats-in-the-american-diet/256155/.
  3. “Facts about Polyunsaturated Fats.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000747.htm.
  4. “Good Fats vs. Bad Fats: Get the Skinny on Fat.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.webmd.com/diet/obesity/features/skinny-fat-good-fats-bad-fats.
  5. “Healthy for Good.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living.
  6. Roussell, Mike. 2014. “Ask the Diet Doctor: Importance of Polyunsaturated Fat.” Shape. December 9, 2014. https://www.shape.com/healthy-eating/diet-tips/ask-diet-doctor-importance-polyunsaturated-fat.
  7. “Ask the Expert: Healthy Fats.” 2012. June 21, 2012. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/2012/06/21/ask-the-expert-healthy-fats/.
  8. “Fats: The Good, the Bad & the Ugly.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.unitypoint.org/livewell/article.aspx?id=a08a02ac-918c-493d-ba8a-6722940599d6.
  9. “Fats.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.diabetes.org/healthy-living/recipes-nutrition/eating-well/fats.
  10. Yin, Huiyong, Joshua D. Brooks, Ling Gao, Ned A. Porter, and Jason D. Morrow. 2007. “Identification of Novel Autoxidation Products of the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Vitro and in Vivo.” The Journal of Biological Chemistry 282 (41): 29890–901.
  11. Davis, Todd A., Ling Gao, Huiyong Yin, Jason D. Morrow, and Ned A. Porter. 2006. “In Vivo and in Vitro Lipid Peroxidation of Arachidonate Esters: The Effect of Fish Oil Omega-3 Lipids on Product Distribution.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 128 (46): 14897–904.
  12. Lefkowith, J. B., A. Morrison, V. Lee, and M. Rogers. 1990. “Manipulation of the Acute Inflammatory Response by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Modulation.” Journal of Immunology 145 (5): 1523–29.
  13. http://europepmc.org/article/MED/2188748
  14. Wright, J. R., Jr, J. B. Lefkowith, G. Schreiner, and P. E. Lacy. 1988. “Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency Prevents Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in CD-1 Mice.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 85 (16): 6137–41.
  15. Wright, J. R., Jr, B. Haliburton, H. Russell, M. Henry, R. Fraser, and H. W. Cook. 1991. “The Anti-Diabetogenic Effect of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Treated Mice Persists If Essential Fatty Acid Repletion Occurs outside of a Brief Window of Susceptibility.” Diabetologia 34 (10): 709–14.
  16. Wright, J. R., Jr, B. Haliburton, H. Russell, M. Henry, R. Fraser, and H. W. Cook. 1991. “The Anti-Diabetogenic Effect of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Treated Mice Persists If Essential Fatty Acid Repletion Occurs outside of a Brief Window of Susceptibility.” Diabetologia 34 (10): 709–14.
  17. Pamplona, R., M. Portero-Otín, C. Ruiz, R. Gredilla, A. Herrero, and G. Barja. 2000. “Double Bond Content of Phospholipids and Lipid Peroxidation Negatively Correlate with Maximum Longevity in the Heart of Mammals.” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 112 (3): 169–83.
  18. https://courses.washington.edu/conj/bess/cholesterol/liver.html
  19. McDermott, Annette. 2017. “HDL vs. LDL Cholesterol: What’s the Difference?” January 23, 2017. https://www.healthline.com/health/hdl-vs-ldl-cholesterol#hdl-vs-ldl.
  20. Benassayag, C., V. Rigourd, T. M. Mignot, J. Hassid, M. J. Leroy, B. Robert, C. Civel, et al. 1999. “Does High Polyunsaturated Free Fatty Acid Level at the Feto-Maternal Interface Alter Steroid Hormone Message during Pregnancy?” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 60 (5-6): 393–99.
  21. Valencak, Teresa G., and Thomas Ruf. 2007. “N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Impair Lifespan but Have No Role for Metabolism.” Aging Cell 6 (1): 15–25.
  22. Speake, B. K., S. Cerolini, A. Maldjian, and R. C. Noble. 1997. “The Preferential Mobilisation of C20 and C22 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from the Adipose Tissue of the Chick Embryo: Potential Implications Regarding the Provision of Essential Fatty Acids for Neural Development.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1345 (3): 317–26.
  23. Easton, A. S., and P. A. Fraser. 1998. “Arachidonic Acid Increases Cerebral Microvascular Permeability by Free Radicals in Single Pial Microvessels of the Anaesthetized Rat.” The Journal of Physiology 507 ( Pt 2) (March): 541–47.
  24. Dhein, Stefan, Bjela Michaelis, and Friedrich-Wilhelm Mohr. 2005. “Antiarrhythmic and Electrophysiological Effects of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.” Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology 371 (3): 202–11.
  25. Volek, J. S., W. J. Kraemer, J. A. Bush, T. Incledon, and M. Boetes. 1997. “Testosterone and Cortisol in Relationship to Dietary Nutrients and Resistance Exercise.” Journal of Applied Physiology 82 (1): 49–54.
  26. http://europepmc.org/article/med/8960090
  27. Calder, Philip C. 2010. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes.” Nutrients 2 (3): 355–74.
  28. Calder, Philip C. 2010. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes.” Nutrients 2 (3): 355–74.
  29. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s003830100589
  30. Wang, Yutong, and John F. Oram. 2002. “Unsaturated Fatty Acids Inhibit Cholesterol Efflux from Macrophages by Increasing Degradation of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 *.” The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (7): 5692–97.
  31. Simopoulos, A. P. 2002. “The Importance of the Ratio of Omega-6/omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids.” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & Pharmacotherapie 56 (8): 365–79.
  32. Bélanger, A., A. Locong, C. Noel, L. Cusan, A. Dupont, J. Prévost, S. Caron, and J. Sévigny. 1989. “Influence of Diet on Plasma Steroids and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels in Adult Men.” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 32 (6): 829–33.
  33. Salvayre, Robert, Nathalie Auge, Herve Benoist, and Anne Negre-Salvayre. 2002. “Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Apoptosis.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1585 (2-3): 213–21.
  34. Eaves, P.H., Molaison, L.J., Black, C.L. et al. A comparison of five commercial solvents for extraction of cottonseed. J Am Oil Chem Soc 29, 88–94 (1952). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02648783
  35. Awada, Manar, Christophe O. Soulage, Anne Meynier, Cyrille Debard, Pascale Plaisancié, Bérengère Benoit, Grégory Picard, et al. 2012. “Dietary Oxidized N-3 PUFA Induce Oxidative Stress and Inflammation: Role of Intestinal Absorption of 4-HHE and Reactivity in Intestinal Cells.” Journal of Lipid Research 53 (10): 2069–80.
  36. Song, J. H., K. Fujimoto, and T. Miyazawa. 2000. “Polyunsaturated (n-3) Fatty Acids Susceptible to Peroxidation Are Increased in Plasma and Tissue Lipids of Rats Fed Docosahexaenoic Acid-Containing Oils.” The Journal of Nutrition 130 (12): 3028–33.
  37. Sakamoto, N., T. Nishiike, H. Iguchi, and K. Sakamoto. 2000. “Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Intake on Plasma Fibrinolytic and Coagulation Activity by Using Physical Load in the Young.” Nutrition 16 (1): 11–14.
  38. Pan, Meihui, Arthur I. Cederbaum, Yuan-Li Zhang, Henry N. Ginsberg, Kevin Jon Williams, and Edward A. Fisher. 2004. “Lipid Peroxidation and Oxidant Stress Regulate Hepatic Apolipoprotein B Degradation and VLDL Production.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation 113 (9): 1277–87.
  39. Okuyama, Harumi, Peter H. Langsjoen, Naoki Ohara, Yoko Hashimoto, Tomohito Hamazaki, Satoshi Yoshida, Tetsuyuki Kobayashi, and Alena M. Langsjoen. 2016. “Medicines and Vegetable Oils as Hidden Causes of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes.” Pharmacology 98 (3-4): 134–70.
  40. https://www.nature.com/articles/ajg201144
  41. Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro Barros, Maria Aparecida Souza, Eloísa Amália Vieira Ferro, Sílvio Favoreto Jr, and Janethe Deolina Oliviera Pena. 2004. “Influence of Topical Administration of N-3 and N-6 Essential and N-9 Nonessential Fatty Acids on the Healing of Cutaneous Wounds.” Wound Repair and Regeneration: Official Publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society 12 (2): 235–43.
  42. Dirix, C. E. H., G. Hornstra, and J. G. Nijhuis. 2009. “Fetal Learning and Memory: Weak Associations with the Early Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 80 (4): 207–12.
  43. Zhang, Bin-Xian, Xiuye Ma, Wanke Zhang, Chih-Ko Yeh, Alan Lin, Jian Luo, Eugene A. Sprague, Russell H. Swerdlow, and Michael S. Katz. 2006. “Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Mobilize Intracellular Ca2+ in NT2 Human Teratocarcinoma Cells by Causing Release of Ca2+ from Mitochondria.” American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology 290 (5): C1321–33.
  44. Bruder, Eric D., Dennis L. Ball, Theodore L. Goodfriend, and Hershel Raff. 2003. “An Oxidized Metabolite of Linoleic Acid Stimulates Corticosterone Production by Rat Adrenal Cells.” American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 284 (6): R1631–35.
  45. Malhotra, Aseem, Rita F. Redberg, and Pascal Meier. 2017. “Saturated Fat Does Not Clog the Arteries: Coronary Heart Disease Is a Chronic Inflammatory Condition, the Risk of Which Can Be Effectively Reduced from Healthy Lifestyle Interventions.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 51 (15): 1111–12.
  46. Katoh, Kazuo, Mami Asari, Hiroko Ishiwata, Yasuyuki Sasaki, and Yoshiaki Obara. 2004. “Saturated Fatty Acids Suppress Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Release from Rat Anterior Pituitary Cells in Vitro.” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology 137 (2): 357–64.
  47. Volek, J. S., W. J. Kraemer, J. A. Bush, T. Incledon, and M. Boetes. 1997. “Testosterone and Cortisol in Relationship to Dietary Nutrients and Resistance Exercise.” Journal of Applied Physiology 82 (1): 49–54.
  48. Segarra, A. B., M. Ramirez, I. Banegas, F. Alba, F. Vives, M. de Gasparo, E. Ortega, E. Ruiz, and I. Prieto. 2008. “Dietary Fat Influences Testosterone, Cholesterol, Aminopeptidase A, and Blood Pressure in Male Rats.” Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et Metabolisme 40 (4): 289–91.
  49. Biello, David. 2010. “Genetically Modified Crop on the Loose and Evolving in U.S. Midwest.” Scientific American, August 6, 2010. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/genetically-modified-crop/.
  50. “10 Reasons to Avoid GMOs.” 2020. January 25, 2020. https://www.responsibletechnology.org/for-parents/parents-tool-kit/10-reasons-to-avoid-gmos/.
  51. “CornOil.pdf.” n.d. https://corn.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/CornOil.pdf.
  52. “Soy Report and Scorecard.” 2009. May 18, 2009. https://www.cornucopia.org/research/soy-report-and-scorecard/.
  53. Eaves, P. H., L. J. Molaison, C. L. Black, A. J. Crovetto, and E. L. D’Aquin. 1952. “A Comparison of Five Commercial Solvents for Extraction of Cottonseed.” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 29 (3): 88–94.
  54. “Sodium Carbonate.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/compounds-and-elements/sodium-carbonate.
  55. Valencak, Teresa G., and Thomas Ruf. 2007. “N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Impair Lifespan but Have No Role for Metabolism.” Aging Cell 6 (1): 15–25.
  56. Pamplona, R., M. Portero-Otín, C. Ruiz, R. Gredilla, A. Herrero, and G. Barja. 2000. “Double Bond Content of Phospholipids and Lipid Peroxidation Negatively Correlate with Maximum Longevity in the Heart of Mammals.” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 112 (3): 169–83.
  57. Okuyama, Harumi, Peter H. Langsjoen, Naoki Ohara, Yoko Hashimoto, Tomohito Hamazaki, Satoshi Yoshida, Tetsuyuki Kobayashi, and Alena M. Langsjoen. 2016. “Medicines and Vegetable Oils as Hidden Causes of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes.” Pharmacology 98 (3-4): 134–70.
  58. “Etomoxir.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/etomoxir.
  59. Steerenberg, P. A., P. K. Beekhof, E. J. M. Feskens, C. J. M. Lips, J. W. M. Höppener, and R. B. Beems. 2002. “Long-Term Effect of Fish Oil Diet on Basal and Stimulated Plasma Glucose and Insulin Levels in Ob/ob Mice.” Diabetes, Nutrition & Metabolism 15 (4): 205–14.
  60. Ramsden, Christopher E., Daisy Zamora, Boonseng Leelarthaepin, Sharon F. Majchrzak-Hong, Keturah R. Faurot, Chirayath M. Suchindran, Amit Ringel, John M. Davis, and Joseph R. Hibbeln. 2013. “Use of Dietary Linoleic Acid for Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease and Death: Evaluation of Recovered Data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and Updated Meta-Analysis.” BMJ 346 (February): e8707.
  61. Volek, J. S., W. J. Kraemer, J. A. Bush, T. Incledon, and M. Boetes. 1997. “Testosterone and Cortisol in Relationship to Dietary Nutrients and Resistance Exercise.” Journal of Applied Physiology 82 (1): 49–54.
  62. Benassayag, C., V. Rigourd, T. M. Mignot, J. Hassid, M. J. Leroy, B. Robert, C. Civel, et al. 1999. “Does High Polyunsaturated Free Fatty Acid Level at the Feto-Maternal Interface Alter Steroid Hormone Message during Pregnancy?” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 60 (5-6): 393–99.
  63. http://europepmc.org/article/med/8960090
  64. Bélanger, A., A. Locong, C. Noel, L. Cusan, A. Dupont, J. Prévost, S. Caron, and J. Sévigny. 1989. “Influence of Diet on Plasma Steroids and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels in Adult Men.” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 32 (6): 829–33.
  65. Christeff, N., C. Michon, G. Goertz, J. Hassid, S. Matheron, P. M. Girard, J. P. Coulaud, and E. A. Nunez. 1988. “Abnormal Free Fatty Acids and Cortisol Concentrations in the Serum of AIDS Patients.” European Journal of Cancer & Clinical Oncology 24 (7): 1179–83.
  66. Altınterim, Başar. 2012. “ANTI-THYROID EFFECTS OF PUFAS (POLYUNSATURATED FATS) AND HERBS.” Trakya University Journal of Natural Sciences 13 (2). http://dx.doi.org/.
  67. Danforth, E., Jr, and A. Burger. 1984. “The Role of Thyroid Hormones in the Control of Energy Expenditure.” Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism 13 (3): 581–95.
  68. Clarke, S. D., and J. Hembree. 1990. “Inhibition of Triiodothyronine’s Induction of Rat Liver Lipogenic Enzymes by Dietary Fat.” The Journal of Nutrition 120 (6): 625–30.


Protein


  1. “Proteins.” 2015. May 10, 2015. https://basicbiology.net/micro/biochemistry/protein.
  2. Libretexts. 2018. “3.3A: Types and Functions of Proteins.” Libretexts. July 5, 2018. https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book%3A_General_Biology_(Boundless)/3%3A_Biological_Macromolecules/3.3%3A_Proteins/3.3A%3A_Types_and_Functions_of_Proteins.
  3. DrJones. 2013. “GLYCINE.” May 7, 2013. https://aminoacidstudies.org/glycine/.
  4. Gusev, E. I., V. I. Skvortsova, S. A. Dambinova, K. S. Raevskiy, A. A. Alekseev, V. G. Bashkatova, A. V. Kovalenko, V. S. Kudrin, and E. V. Yakovleva. 2000. “Neuroprotective Effects of Glycine for Therapy of Acute Ischaemic Stroke.” Cerebrovascular Diseases 10 (1): 49–60.
  5. Díaz-Flores, Margarita, Miguel Cruz, Genoveva Duran-Reyes, Catarina Munguia-Miranda, Hilda Loza-Rodríguez, Evelyn Pulido-Casas, Nayeli Torres-Ramírez, et al. 2013. “Oral Supplementation with Glycine Reduces Oxidative Stress in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome, Improving Their Systolic Blood Pressure.” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 91 (10): 855–60.
  6. Yamadera, Wataru, Kentaro Inagawa, Shintaro Chiba, Makoto Bannai, Michio Takahashi, and Kazuhiko Nakayama. 2007. “Glycine Ingestion Improves Subjective Sleep Quality in Human Volunteers, Correlating with Polysomnographic Changes: Effects of Glycine on Polysomnography.” Sleep and Biological Rhythms 5 (2): 126–31.
  7. Bannai, Makoto, Nobuhiro Kawai, Kaori Ono, Keiko Nakahara, and Noboru Murakami. 2012. “The Effects of Glycine on Subjective Daytime Performance in Partially Sleep-Restricted Healthy Volunteers.” Frontiers in Neurology 3 (April): 61.
  8. Arwert, L. I., J. B. Deijen, and M. L. Drent. 2003. “Effects of an Oral Mixture Containing Glycine, Glutamine and Niacin on Memory, GH and IGF-I Secretion in Middle-Aged and Elderly Subjects.” Nutritional Neuroscience 6 (5): 269–75.
  9. Kasai, K., M. Kobayashi, and S. I. Shimoda. 1978. “Stimulatory Effect of Glycine on Human Growth Hormone Secretion.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 27 (2): 201–8.
  10. Kasai, K., H. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, H. Shiina, and S. I. Shimoda. 1980. “Glycine Stimulated Growth Hormone Release in Man.” Acta Endocrinologica 93 (3): 283–86.
  11. Petzke, K. J., K. L. Pisarchuk, Grigorov YuG, and V. Albrecht. 1987. “[The effect of oral administration of glycine on metabolism].” Die Nahrung 31 (3): 207–15.
  12. Barakat, H. A., and A. H. Hamza. 2012. “Glycine Alleviates Liver Injury Induced by Deficiency in Methionine and or Choline in Rats.” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 16 (6): 728–36.
  13. Senthilkumar, Rajagopal, Periyasamy Viswanathan, and Namasivayam Nalini. 2003. “Glycine Modulates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury.” Polish Journal of Pharmacology 55 (4): 603–11.
  14. Jones, Dr. 2016. “PROLINE.” May 1, 2016. https://aminoacidstudies.org/l-proline/.
  15. Kang, Ping, Lili Zhang, Yongqing Hou, Binying Ding, Dan Yi, Lei Wang, Huiling Zhu, Yulan Liu, Yulong Yin, and Guoyao Wu. 2014. “Effects of L-Proline on the Growth Performance, and Blood Parameters in Weaned Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Challenged Pigs.” Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 27 (8): 1150–56.
  16. “Alanine.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://aminoacidsguide.com/Ala.html.
  17. Freibert. 2012. “ARGININE.” April 21, 2012. https://aminoacidstudies.org/l-arginine/.
  18. “Arginine.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://aminoacidsguide.com/Arg.html.
  19. Carvalho, D. P., A. C. Ferreira, S. M. Coelho, J. M. Moraes, M. A. Camacho, and D. Rosenthal. 2000. “Thyroid Peroxidase Activity Is Inhibited by Amino Acids.” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Medicas E Biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica... [et Al.] 33 (3): 355–61.
  20. Yamashita, Masatoshi, and Takanobu Yamamoto. 2014. “Tryptophan and Kynurenic Acid May Produce an Amplified Effect in Central Fatigue Induced by Chronic Sleep Disorder.” International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR 7 (May): 9–14.
  21. Feksa, Luciane Rosa, Alexandra Latini, Virgínia Cielo Rech, Moacir Wajner, Carlos Severo Dutra-Filho, Angela Terezinha de Souza Wyse, and Clovis Milton Duval Wannmacher. 2006. “Promotion of Oxidative Stress by L-Tryptophan in Cerebral Cortex of Rats.” Neurochemistry International 49 (1): 87–93.
  22. Bertazzo, A., M. Biasiolo, C. V. Costa, E. Cardin de Stefani, and G. Allegri. 2000. “Tryptophan in Human Hair: Correlation with Pigmentation.” Farmaco 55 (8): 521–25.
  23. Biasiolo, M., A. Bertazzo, C. V. Costa, and G. Allegri. 1999. “Correlation between Tryptophan and Hair Pigmentation in Human Hair.” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 467: 653–57.
  24. Silber, B. Y., and J. A. J. Schmitt. 2010. “Effects of Tryptophan Loading on Human Cognition, Mood, and Sleep.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 34 (3): 387–407.
  25. Puka-Sundvall, M., P. Eriksson, M. Nilsson, M. Sandberg, and A. Lehmann. 1995. “Neurotoxicity of Cysteine: Interaction with Glutamate.” Brain Research 705 (1-2): 65–70.
  26. Viña, J., G. T. Saez, D. Wiggins, A. F. Roberts, R. Hems, and H. A. Krebs. 1983. “The Effect of Cysteine Oxidation on Isolated Hepatocytes.” Biochemical Journal 212 (1): 39–44.
  27. Janáky, R., V. Varga, A. Hermann, P. Saransaari, and S. S. Oja. 2000. “Mechanisms of L-Cysteine Neurotoxicity.” Neurochemical Research 25 (9-10): 1397–1405.
  28. Hayden, P. J., and J. L. Stevens. 1990. “Cysteine Conjugate Toxicity, Metabolism, and Binding to Macromolecules in Isolated Rat Kidney Mitochondria.” Molecular Pharmacology 37 (3): 468–76.
  29. Duranton, B., J. N. Freund, M. Galluser, R. Schleiffer, F. Gossé, C. Bergmann, M. Hasselmann, and F. Raul. 1999. “Promotion of Intestinal Carcinogenesis by Dietary Methionine.” Carcinogenesis 20 (3): 493–97.
  30. Yang, Yuhui, Jiahong Zhang, Guoqing Wu, Jin Sun, Yanan Wang, Haitao Guo, Yonghui Shi, Xiangrong Cheng, Xue Tang, and Guowei Le. 2018. “Dietary Methionine Restriction Regulated Energy and Protein Homeostasis by Improving Thyroid Function in High Fat Diet Mice.” Food & Function 9 (7): 3718–31.
  31. “Health & Wellness Advocacy Studies - Clean Label Project.” 2020. March 5, 2020. https://cleanlabelproject.org/health-fitness/.
  32. Rossen, Jake. 2018. “Heavy Metal: Your Protein Powder May Contain Lead Or Arsenic.” March 2, 2018. https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/533738/heavy-metal-your-protein-powder-may-contain-lead-or-arsenic.
  33. “Health Risks of Protein Drinks - Consumer Reports.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.consumerreports.org/cro/2012/04/protein-drinks/index.htm.
  34. https://althealthworks.com/15400/only-these-3-protein-powder-rated-free-of-lead-arsenic-and-mercury-popular-brands-failed-miserablyyelena/
  35. Nordqvist, Joseph. 2017. “Whey Protein: Health Benefits, Side Effects, and Dangers.” November 27, 2017. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263371.
  36. http://europepmc.org/article/med/18455389
  37. Hulmi, Juha J., Jeff S. Volek, Harri Selänne, and Antti A. Mero. 2005. “Protein Ingestion prior to Strength Exercise Affects Blood Hormones and Metabolism.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 37 (11): 1990–97.
  38. Hulmi, Juha J., Jeff S. Volek, Harri Selänne, and Antti A. Mero. 2005. “Protein Ingestion prior to Strength Exercise Affects Blood Hormones and Metabolism.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 37 (11): 1990–97.
  39. Pape-Zambito, D. A., R. F. Roberts, and R. S. Kensinger. 2010. “Estrone and 17beta-Estradiol Concentrations in Pasteurized-Homogenized Milk and Commercial Dairy Products.” Journal of Dairy Science 93 (6): 2533–40.
  40. Ireland, Corydon. 2006. “Hormones in Milk Can Be Dangerous.” Harvard Gazette. December 7, 2006. https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2006/12/hormones-in-milk-can-be-dangerous/.
  41. Farlow, Daniel W., Xia Xu, and Timothy D. Veenstra. 2009. “Quantitative Measurement of Endogenous Estrogen Metabolites, Risk-Factors for Development of Breast Cancer, in Commercial Milk Products by LC-MS/MS.” Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 877 (13): 1327–34.
  42. Zhu, Kun, Deborah A. Kerr, Xingqiong Meng, Amanda Devine, Vicky Solah, Colin W. Binns, and Richard L. Prince. 2015. “Two-Year Whey Protein Supplementation Did Not Enhance Muscle Mass and Physical Function in Well-Nourished Healthy Older Postmenopausal Women.” The Journal of Nutrition 145 (11): 2520–26.
  43. Hwang, Paul S., Thomas L. Andre, Sarah K. McKinley-Barnard, Flor E. Morales Marroquín, Joshua J. Gann, Joon J. Song, and Darryn S. Willoughby. 2017. “Resistance Training-Induced Elevations in Muscular Strength in Trained Men Are Maintained After 2 Weeks of Detraining and Not Differentially Affected by Whey Protein Supplementation.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association 31 (4): 869–81.
  44. Boone, Carleigh H., Jeffrey R. Stout, Kyle S. Beyer, David H. Fukuda, and Jay R. Hoffman. 2015. “Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy Occur Independently of Protein Supplementation during Short-Term Resistance Training in Untrained Men.” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme 40 (8): 797–802.
  45. Erskine, Robert M., Gareth Fletcher, Beth Hanson, and Jonathan P. Folland. 2012. “Whey Protein Does Not Enhance the Adaptations to Elbow Flexor Resistance Training.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 44 (9): 1791–1800.
  46. Weisgarber, Krissy D., Darren G. Candow, and Emelie S. M. Vogt. 2012. “Whey Protein before and during Resistance Exercise Has No Effect on Muscle Mass and Strength in Untrained Young Adults.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 22 (6): 463–69.
  47. Mielke, Michelle, Terry J. Housh, Moh H. Malek, Travis W. Beck, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson, and Dona J. Housh. 2009. “The Effects of Whey Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Strength, Muscular Endurance, and Body Composition during Resistance Training.” Journal of Exercise Physiology Online / American Society of Exercise Physiologists 12 (5): 39–50.
  48. Verdijk, Lex B., Richard A. M. Jonkers, Benjamin G. Gleeson, Milou Beelen, Kenneth Meijer, Hans H. C. M. Savelberg, Will K. W. H. Wodzig, Paul Dendale, and Luc J. C. van Loon. 2009. “Protein Supplementation before and after Exercise Does Not Further Augment Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Resistance Training in Elderly Men.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89 (2): 608–16.
  49. Melnik, B. C. 2011. “Evidence for Acne-Promoting Effects of Milk and Other Insulinotropic Dairy Products.” In , 67:131–45.
  50. Silverberg, Nanette B. 2012. “Whey Protein Precipitating Moderate to Severe Acne Flares in 5 Teenaged Athletes.” Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner 90 (2): 70–72.
  51. Pontes, Thaís de Carvalho, Gilson Mauro Costa Fernandes Filho, Arthur de Sousa Pereira Trindade, and Jader Freire Sobral Filho. 2013. “Incidence of Acne Vulgaris in Young Adult Users of Protein-Calorie Supplements in the City of João Pessoa--PB.” Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia 88 (6): 907–12.
  52. Simonart, Thierry. 2012. “Acne and Whey Protein Supplementation among Bodybuilders.” Dermatology 225 (3): 256–58.
  53. Adebamowo, Clement A., Donna Spiegelman, F. William Danby, A. Lindsay Frazier, Walter C. Willett, and Michelle D. Holmes. 2005. “High School Dietary Dairy Intake and Teenage Acne.” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 52 (2): 207–14.
  54. Bowen, Jane, Manny Noakes, Craige Trenerry, and Peter M. Clifton. 2006. “Energy Intake, Ghrelin, and Cholecystokinin after Different Carbohydrate and Protein Preloads in Overweight Men.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 91 (4): 1477–83.
  55. Bellissimo, N., M. V. Desantadina, P. B. Pencharz, G. B. Berall, S. G. Thomas, and G. H. Anderson. 2008. “A Comparison of Short-Term Appetite and Energy Intakes in Normal Weight and Obese Boys Following Glucose and Whey-Protein Drinks.” International Journal of Obesity 32 (2): 362–71.
  56. Aldrich, Noel D., Marla M. Reicks, Shalamar D. Sibley, J. Bruce Redmon, William Thomas, and Susan K. Raatz. 2011. “Varying Protein Source and Quantity Do Not Significantly Improve Weight Loss, Fat Loss, or Satiety in Reduced Energy Diets among Midlife Adults.” Nutrition Research 31 (2): 104–12.
  57. Abou-Samra, Rania, Lian Keersmaekers, Dino Brienza, Rajat Mukherjee, and Katherine Macé. 2011. “Effect of Different Protein Sources on Satiation and Short-Term Satiety When Consumed as a Starter.” Nutrition Journal 10 (December): 139.
  58. Arnberg, Karina, Christian Mølgaard, Kim Fleischer Michaelsen, Signe Marie Jensen, Ellen Trolle, and Anni Larnkjær. 2012. “Skim Milk, Whey, and Casein Increase Body Weight and Whey and Casein Increase the Plasma C-Peptide Concentration in Overweight Adolescents.” The Journal of Nutrition 142 (12): 2083–90.
  59. Hoppe, C., C. Mølgaard, A. Vaag, V. Barkholt, and K. F. Michaelsen. 2005. “High Intakes of Milk, but Not Meat, Increase S-Insulin and Insulin Resistance in 8-Year-Old Boys.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 (3): 393–98.
  60. Liljeberg Elmståhl, H., and I. Björck. 2001. “Milk as a Supplement to Mixed Meals May Elevate Postprandial Insulinaemia.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55 (11): 994–99.
  61. Melnik, B. C. 2011. “Evidence for Acne-Promoting Effects of Milk and Other Insulinotropic Dairy Products.” In , 67:131–45.
  62. Habib, Huma, and K. M. Fazili. 2007. “Plant Protease Inhibitors: A Defense Strategy in Plants.” https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/bd43c4f85fd90214638535119278ad31597a7436.
  63. “Proteins.” 2015. May 10, 2015. https://basicbiology.net/micro/biochemistry/protein.
  64. “What Are Proteins and What Do They Do?” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/howgeneswork/protein/.
  65. “The Protein Bible: Part 3 - Protein Requirements for Goals.” n.d. Accessed March 31, 2021. http://www.schwarzenegger.com/fitness/post/The-Protein-Bible-Part-3-Protein-Requirements-for-Goals.
  66. Evans, William J. 2004. “Protein Nutrition, Exercise and Aging.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23 (6 Suppl): 601S – 609S.
  67. Campbell, W. W., T. A. Trappe, R. R. Wolfe, and W. J. Evans. 2001. “The Recommended Dietary Allowance for Protein May Not Be Adequate for Older People to Maintain Skeletal Muscle.” The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 56 (6): M373–80.
  68. Lonnie, Marta, Emma Hooker, Jeffrey M. Brunstrom, Bernard M. Corfe, Mark A. Green, Anthony W. Watson, Elizabeth A. Williams, Emma J. Stevenson, Simon Penson, and Alexandra M. Johnstone. 2018. “Protein for Life: Review of Optimal Protein Intake, Sustainable Dietary Sources and the Effect on Appetite in Ageing Adults.” Nutrients 10 (3). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030360.
  69. Witard, Oliver C., Sophie L. Wardle, Lindsay S. Macnaughton, Adrian B. Hodgson, and Kevin D. Tipton. 2016. “Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults.” Nutrients 8 (4): 181.
  70. Smith, J. S., C. B. Brachmann, I. Celic, M. A. Kenna, S. Muhammad, V. J. Starai, J. L. Avalos, et al. 2000. “A Phylogenetically Conserved NAD+-Dependent Protein Deacetylase Activity in the Sir2 Protein Family.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 (12): 6658–63.
  71. Seyedsadjadi, Neda, Jade Berg, Ayse A. Bilgin, Nady Braidy, Chris Salonikas, and Ross Grant. 2018. “High Protein Intake Is Associated with Low Plasma NAD+ Levels in a Healthy Human Cohort.” PloS One 13 (8): e0201968.

Vegetables


  1. Wright, E. 1958. “Goitrogen of Milk Produced on Kale.” Nature 181 (4623): 1602–3.
  2. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/cgi-bin/repository.pl?url=/bulletin/1968/Vol38/Vol38-No2/bulletin_1968_38(2)_297-318.pdf 
  3. Smith, R. H. 1978. “S-Methylcysteine Sulphoxide, the Brassica Anaemia Factor (a Valuable Dietary Factor for Man?).” Veterinary Science Communications 2 (1): 47–61.
  4. Davies, M. H., J. M. Ngong, A. Pean, C. R. Vickers, R. H. Waring, and E. Elias. 1995. “Sulphoxidation and Sulphation Capacity in Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.” Journal of Hepatology 22 (5): 551–60.
  5. Gordon, C., H. Bradley, R. H. Waring, and P. Emery. 1992. “Abnormal Sulphur Oxidation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.” The Lancet 339 (8784): 25–26.
  6. Emery, P., H. Bradley, V. Arthur, E. Tunn, and R. Waring. 1992. “Genetic Factors Influencing the Outcome of Early Arthritis--the Role of Sulphoxidation Status.” British Journal of Rheumatology 31 (7): 449–51.
  7. Chris Kresser, M. S. 2012. “Myths and Truths About Fiber.” Chris Kresser LLC. February 17, 2012. https://chriskresser.com/myths-and-truths-about-fiber/.
  8. Gillespie, David. n.d. “4 Good Reasons Not to Add Fibre to Your Diet.” Accessed April 1, 2021. https://davidgillespie.org/4-good-reasons-not-to-add-fibre-to-your-diet/.
  9. Greenfield, Ben. 2013. “Is Fiber Bad For You?” January 12, 2013. https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/article/nutrition-articles/is-fiber-bad-for-you/.
  10. Guest. 2013. “Dietary Fiber Is Bad for Sex - That’s the Only Claim About It That Isn't a Myth.” September 3, 2013. https://www.marksdailyapple.com/dietary-fiber-is-bad-for-sex-thats-the-only-claim-about-it-that-isnt-a-myth/.
  11. Wanders, A. J., J. J. G. C. van den Borne, C. de Graaf, T. Hulshof, M. C. Jonathan, M. Kristensen, M. Mars, H. A. Schols, and E. J. M. Feskens. 2011. “Effects of Dietary Fibre on Subjective Appetite, Energy Intake and Body Weight: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 12 (9): 724–39.
  12. Clark, Michelle J., and Joanne L. Slavin. 2013. “The Effect of Fiber on Satiety and Food Intake: A Systematic Review.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 32 (3): 200–211.
  13. Clark, Michelle J., and Joanne L. Slavin. 2013. “The Effect of Fiber on Satiety and Food Intake: A Systematic Review.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 32 (3): 200–211.
  14. Asano, T., and R. S. McLeod. 2002. “Dietary Fibre for the Prevention of Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , no. 2: CD003430.
  15. Park, Yikyung, David J. Hunter, Donna Spiegelman, Leif Bergkvist, Franco Berrino, Piet A. van den Brandt, Julie E. Buring, et al. 2005. “Dietary Fiber Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 294 (22): 2849–57.
  16. Alberts, D. S., M. E. Martínez, D. J. Roe, J. M. Guillén-Rodríguez, J. R. Marshall, J. B. van Leeuwen, M. E. Reid, et al. 2000. “Lack of Effect of a High-Fiber Cereal Supplement on the Recurrence of Colorectal Adenomas. Phoenix Colon Cancer Prevention Physicians’ Network.” The New England Journal of Medicine 342 (16): 1156–62.
  17. Jacobs, Elizabeth T., Anna R. Giuliano, Denise J. Roe, José M. Guillén-Rodríguez, Lisa M. Hess, David S. Alberts, and María Elena Martínez. 2002. “Intake of Supplemental and Total Fiber and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma Recurrence in the Wheat Bran Fiber Trial.” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention: A Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 11 (9): 906–14.
  18. Jacobs, Elizabeth T., Anna R. Giuliano, Denise J. Roe, José M. Guillén-Rodríguez, David S. Alberts, and María Elena Martínez. 2002. “Baseline Dietary Fiber Intake and Colorectal Adenoma Recurrence in the Wheat Bran Fiber Randomized Trial.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94 (21): 1620–25.
  19. Ho, Kok-Sun, Charmaine You Mei Tan, Muhd Ashik Mohd Daud, and Francis Seow-Choen. 2012. “Stopping or Reducing Dietary Fiber Intake Reduces Constipation and Its Associated Symptoms.” World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG 18 (33): 4593–96.
  20. Bijkerk, C. J., J. W. M. Muris, J. A. Knottnerus, A. W. Hoes, and N. J. de Wit. 2004. “Systematic Review: The Role of Different Types of Fibre in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 19 (3): 245–51.
  21. Peery, Anne F., Patrick R. Barrett, Doyun Park, Albert J. Rogers, Joseph A. Galanko, Christopher F. Martin, and Robert S. Sandler. 2012. “A High-Fiber Diet Does Not Protect against Asymptomatic Diverticulosis.” Gastroenterology 142 (2): 266–72.e1.
  22. Carvalho, Erica Bloes de, Márcia Regina Vitolo, Cíntia Mendes Gama, Fabio Ancona Lopez, José Augusto C. Taddei, and Mauro Batista de Morais. 2006. “Fiber Intake, Constipation, and Overweight among Adolescents Living in Sao Paulo City.” Nutrition 22 (7-8): 744–49.
  23. “Fiber.” n.d. Accessed April 1, 2021. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002470.htm.
  24. “Soluble vs. Insoluble Fiber.” n.d. Accessed April 1, 2021. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002136.htm.
  25. Vineetha. n.d. “Traditional Asian Diet - What Is It, Dietary Guidelines & A Simple Diet Chart - Health Beckon.” Accessed April 1, 2021. https://www.healthbeckon.com/traditional-asian-diet/.
  26. Administrator, G. I. Care. 2011. “Asian Diet.” October 29, 2011. https://www.gicare.com/gi-health-resources/asian-diet/.
  27. Wu, A. H., A. S. Whittemore, L. N. Kolonel, E. M. John, R. P. Gallagher, D. W. West, J. Hankin, C. Z. Teh, D. M. Dreon, and R. S. Paffenbarger Jr. 1995. “Serum Androgens and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulins in Relation to Lifestyle Factors in Older African-American, White, and Asian Men in the United States and Canada.” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention: A Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 4 (7): 735–41.
  28. Whitten, Crystal G., and Terry D. Shultz. 1988. “Binding of Steroid Hormones in Vitro by Water-Insoluble Dietary Fiber.” Nutrition Research 8 (11): 1223–35.
  29. Ross, J. K., D. J. Pusateri, and T. D. Shultz. 1990. “Dietary and Hormonal Evaluation of Men at Different Risks for Prostate Cancer: Fiber Intake, Excretion, and Composition, with in Vitro Evidence for an Association between Steroid Hormones and Specific Fiber Components.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51 (3): 365–70.
  30. Dorgan, J. F., J. T. Judd, C. Longcope, C. Brown, A. Schatzkin, B. A. Clevidence, W. S. Campbell, et al. 1996. “Effects of Dietary Fat and Fiber on Plasma and Urine Androgens and Estrogens in Men: A Controlled Feeding Study.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64 (6): 850–55.
  31. Wang, Christina, Don H. Catlin, Borislav Starcevic, David Heber, Christie Ambler, Nancy Berman, Geraldine Lucas, et al. 2005. “Low-Fat High-Fiber Diet Decreased Serum and Urine Androgens in Men.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90 (6): 3550–59.
  32. Shultz, T. D., and B. J. Howie. 1986. “In Vitro Binding of Steroid Hormones by Natural and Purified Fibers.” Nutrition and Cancer 8 (2): 141–47.
  33. Field, A. E., G. A. Colditz, W. C. Willett, C. Longcope, and J. B. McKinlay. 1994. “The Relation of Smoking, Age, Relative Weight, and Dietary Intake to Serum Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Middle-Aged Men.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 79 (5): 1310–16.
  34. Herman Adlercreutz (1990) Western diet and Western diseases: Some hormonal and biochemical mechanisms and associations, Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 50:sup201, 3-23, DOI: 10.1080/00365519009085798
  35. http://www.airlats.com/testosterone/
  36. Tymchuk, C. N., S. B. Tessler, and R. J. Barnard. 2000. “Changes in Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, Insulin, and Serum Lipids in Postmenopausal Women on a Low-Fat, High-Fiber Diet Combined with Exercise.” Nutrition and Cancer 38 (2): 158–62.
  37. “Gas – Flatulence: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia.” n.d. Accessed April 1, 2021. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003124.htm.
  38. Torre, M., A. R. Rodriguez, and F. Saura-Calixto. 1991. “Effects of Dietary Fiber and Phytic Acid on Mineral Availability.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 30 (1): 1–22.
  39. Weickert, Martin O., and Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer. 2008. “Metabolic Effects of Dietary Fiber Consumption and Prevention of Diabetes.” The Journal of Nutrition 138 (3): 439–42.
  40. Weickert, Martin O., and Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer. 2018. “Impact of Dietary Fiber Consumption on Insulin Resistance and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes.” The Journal of Nutrition 148 (1): 7–12.
  41. Higgins, Janine A. 2004. “Resistant Starch: Metabolic Effects and Potential Health Benefits.” Journal of AOAC International 87 (3): 761–68.
  42. Robertson, M. Denise, Alex S. Bickerton, A. Louise Dennis, Hubert Vidal, and Keith N. Frayn. 2005. “Insulin-Sensitizing Effects of Dietary Resistant Starch and Effects on Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue Metabolism.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (3): 559–67.
  43. Roos, N. de, M. L. Heijnen, C. de Graaf, G. Woestenenk, and E. Hobbel. 1995. “Resistant Starch Has Little Effect on Appetite, Food Intake and Insulin Secretion of Healthy Young Men.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49 (7): 532–41.
  44. Polakof, Sergio, María Elena Díaz-Rubio, Dominique Dardevet, Jean-François Martin, Estelle Pujos-Guillot, Augustin Scalbert, Jean-Louis Sebedio, Andrzej Mazur, and Blandine Comte. 2013. “Resistant Starch Intake Partly Restores Metabolic and Inflammatory Alterations in the Liver of High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats.” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 24 (11): 1920–30.
  45. Li, Qian, Theodore R. Holford, Yawei Zhang, Peter Boyle, Susan T. Mayne, Min Dai, and Tongzhang Zheng. 2013. “Dietary Fiber Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer by Menopausal and Estrogen Receptor Status.” European Journal of Nutrition 52 (1): 217–23.
  46. Parnell, Jill A., and Raylene A. Reimer. 2009. “Weight Loss during Oligofructose Supplementation Is Associated with Decreased Ghrelin and Increased Peptide YY in Overweight and Obese Adults.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89 (6): 1751–59.
  47. Kok, N., M. Roberfroid, and N. Delzenne. 1996. “Dietary Oligofructose Modifies the Impact of Fructose on Hepatic Triacylglycerol Metabolism.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 45 (12): 1547–50.
  48. Cashman, Kevin D. 2006. “A Prebiotic Substance Persistently Enhances Intestinal Calcium Absorption and Increases Bone Mineralization in Young Adolescents.” Nutrition Reviews 64 (4): 189–96.
  49. Guarner, Francisco. 2007. “Studies with Inulin-Type Fructans on Intestinal Infections, Permeability, and Inflammation.” The Journal of Nutrition 137 (11 Suppl): 2568S – 2571S.
  50. Guarner, Francisco, and Juan-R Malagelada. 2003. “Gut Flora in Health and Disease.” The Lancet 361 (9356): 512–19.
  51. Roberfroid, M. 1993. “Dietary Fiber, Inulin, and Oligofructose: A Review Comparing Their Physiological Effects.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 33 (2): 103–48.
  52. Arslanoglu, Sertac, Guido E. Moro, Joachim Schmitt, Laura Tandoi, Silvia Rizzardi, and Gunther Boehm. 2008. “Early Dietary Intervention with a Mixture of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Reduces the Incidence of Allergic Manifestations and Infections during the First Two Years of Life.” The Journal of Nutrition 138 (6): 1091–95.
  53. Guarner, Francisco. 2007. “Studies with Inulin-Type Fructans on Intestinal Infections, Permeability, and Inflammation.” The Journal of Nutrition 137 (11 Suppl): 2568S – 2571S.


Hormones


  1. Fountain, John H., and Sarah L. Lappin. 2020. “Physiology, Renin Angiotensin System.” In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing.
  2. Tuso, Phillip. 2014. “Prediabetes and Lifestyle Modification: Time to Prevent a Preventable Disease.” The Permanente Journal 18 (3): 88–93.



Inflammation


  1. Peat, Ray. n.d. “Regeneration and Degeneration.” Accessed April 1, 2021. https://raypeat.com/articles/articles/regeneration-degeneration.shtml.
  2. Zamenhof, S., and G. Ahmad. 1979. “The Effects of Exogenous Nutrients on Growth of Chick Embryo Brain.” Growth 43 (3): 160–66.
  3. https://web.stanford.edu/group/stanfordbirds/text/essays/Precocial_and_Altricial.html
  4. Rinaldi, Joshua. 2006. “Last caw: Crow thought to be world's oldest dies in Bearsville at age 59.” July 7, 2006. https://www.dailyfreeman.com/news/last-caw-crow-thought-to-be-world-s-oldest-dies/article_985aeacb-4ea2-5ea4-8cce-1e7037763e5b.html.
  5. “UCSB Science Line.” n.d. Accessed April 1, 2021. http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=6040.
  6. Wojdasiewicz, Piotr, Łukasz A. Poniatowski, and Dariusz Szukiewicz. 2014. “The Role of Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis.” Mediators of Inflammation 2014 (April): 561459.
  7. Wagner, W., and M. Wehrmann. 2007. “Differential Cytokine Activity and Morphology during Wound Healing in the Neonatal and Adult Rat Skin.” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 11 (6): 1342–51.
  8. Morykwas, M. J., S. L. Perry, and L. C. Argenta. 1993. “Effects of Prostaglandins and Indomethacin on the Cellular Inflammatory Response Following Surgical Trauma in Fetal Rabbits.” International Journal of Tissue Reactions 15 (4): 151–56.
  9. Ricciotti, Emanuela, and Garret A. FitzGerald. 2011. “Prostaglandins and Inflammation.” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 31 (5): 986–1000.
  10. Dirix, Chantal E. H., Arnold D. Kester, and Gerard Hornstra. 2009. “Associations between Term Birth Dimensions and Prenatal Exposure to Essential and Trans Fatty Acids.” Early Human Development 85 (8): 525–30.
  11. Dirix, C. E. H., G. Hornstra, and J. G. Nijhuis. 2009. “Fetal Learning and Memory: Weak Associations with the Early Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 80 (4): 207–12.
  12. Sweeney, B., P. Puri, and D. J. Reen. 2001. “Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Influence Neonatal Monocyte Survival.” Pediatric Surgery International 17 (4): 254–58.
  13. Kent, George. 2014. “Regulating Fatty Acids in Infant Formula: Critical Assessment of U.S. Policies and Practices.” International Breastfeeding Journal 9 (1): 2.
  14. Peltekova, Vanya, Doreen Engelberts, Gail Otulakowski, Satoko Uematsu, Martin Post, and Brian P. Kavanagh. 2010. “Hypercapnic Acidosis in Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury.” Intensive Care Medicine 36 (5): 869–78.
  15. Peng, Yuanfei, Minhua Zheng, Qing Ye, Xuehua Chen, Beiqing Yu, and Bingya Liu. 2009. “Heated and Humidified CO2 Prevents Hypothermia, Peritoneal Injury, and Intra-Abdominal Adhesions during Prolonged Laparoscopic Insufflations.” The Journal of Surgical Research 151 (1): 40–47.
  16. Peng, Yuanfei, Minhua Zheng, Qing Ye, Xuehua Chen, Beiqing Yu, and Bingya Liu. 2009. “Heated and Humidified CO2 Prevents Hypothermia, Peritoneal Injury, and Intra-Abdominal Adhesions during Prolonged Laparoscopic Insufflations.” The Journal of Surgical Research 151 (1): 40–47.
  17. Morisaki, Hiroshi, Satoshi Yajima, Yoko Watanabe, Takeshi Suzuki, Michiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Katori, Saori Hashiguchi, and Junzo Takeda. 2009. “Hypercapnic Acidosis Minimizes Endotoxin-Induced Gut Mucosal Injury in Rabbits.” Intensive Care Medicine 35 (1): 129–35.
  18. Grow, Matthew, Anton W. Neff, Anthony L. Mescher, and Michael W. King. 2006. “Global Analysis of Gene Expression in Xenopus Hindlimbs during Stage-Dependent Complete and Incomplete Regeneration.” Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists 235 (10): 2667–85.
  19. Winkelmann, E. 1960. “[Experimental studies on the regeneration of the spinal cord of Amblystoma mexicanum after extirpation of a small section].” Zeitschrift fur mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 66: 147–76.
  20. Shieh, Shyh-Jou, and Tsun-Chih Cheng. 2015. “Regeneration and Repair of Human Digits and Limbs: Fact and Fiction.” Regeneration (Oxford, England) 2 (4): 149–68.
  21. Jafari, Paris, Camillo Muller, Anthony Grognuz, Lee Ann Applegate, Wassim Raffoul, Pietro G. di Summa, and Sébastien Durand. 2017. “First Insights into Human Fingertip Regeneration by Echo-Doppler Imaging and Wound Microenvironment Assessment.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18 (5). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051054.
  22. Mescher, Anthony L., Anton W. Neff, and Michael W. King. 2017. “Inflammation and Immunity in Organ Regeneration.” Developmental and Comparative Immunology 66 (January): 98–110.
  23. Elmore, Susan. 2007. “Apoptosis: A Review of Programmed Cell Death.” Toxicologic Pathology 35 (4): 495–516.
  24. Kurata, Y., Y. Nishioeda, T. Tsubakio, and T. Kitani. 1980. “Thrombocytopenia in Graves’ Disease: Effect of T3 on Platelet Kinetics.” Acta Haematologica 63 (4): 185–90.
  25. Aprahamian, T., Y. Takemura, D. Goukassian, and K. Walsh. 2008. “Ageing Is Associated with Diminished Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Vivo.” Clinical and Experimental Immunology 152 (3): 448–55.
  26. Aprahamian, T., Y. Takemura, D. Goukassian, and K. Walsh. 2008. “Ageing Is Associated with Diminished Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Vivo.” Clinical and Experimental Immunology 152 (3): 448–55.
  27. Zhong, Zhi, Micheal D. Wheeler, Xiangli Li, Matthias Froh, Peter Schemmer, Ming Yin, Hartwig Bunzendaul, Blair Bradford, and John J. Lemasters. 2003. “L-Glycine: A Novel Antiinflammatory, Immunomodulatory, and Cytoprotective Agent.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 6 (2): 229–40.
  28. Purves, Dale, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, Lawrence C. Katz, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O. McNamara, and S. Mark Williams. 2001. GABA and Glycine. Sinauer Associates.
  29. Lynch, Joseph W. 2004. “Molecular Structure and Function of the Glycine Receptor Chloride Channel.” Physiological Reviews 84 (4): 1051–95.
  30. Van den Eynden, Jimmy, Sheen Saheb Ali, Nikki Horwood, Sofie Carmans, Bert Brône, Niels Hellings, Paul Steels, Robert J. Harvey, and Jean-Michel Rigo. 2009. “Glycine and Glycine Receptor Signalling in Non-Neuronal Cells.” Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 2 (August): 9.
  31. (Valtsu), Vladimir Heiskanen, and View my Complete Profile. n.d. “Valtsu’s.” Accessed April 1, 2021. https://valtsus.blogspot.com/2013/12/glycine.html.
  32. Stone, Matt. 2014. “Diet and Inflammation Part 4 - 180 Degree Health.” September 20, 2014. https://180degreehealth.com/diet-inflammation-part-4/.
  33. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003 Apr;134(4):521-7. Effect of glycine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Alvarado-Vásquez N, Zamudio P, Cerón E, Vanda B, Zenteno E, Carvajal-Sandoval G.
  34. Mol Vis. 2012;18:439-48. Glycine therapy inhibits the progression of cataract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Bahmani F, Bathaie SZ, Aldavood SJ, Ghahghaei A.
  35. Rev Alerg Mex. 2006 Nov-Dec;53(6):212-6. Effect of glycine on the immune response of the experimentally diabetic rats. Lezcano Meza D, Terán Ortiz L, Carvajal Sandoval G, Gutiérrez de la Cadena M, Terán Escandón D, Estrada Parra S.
  36. Rev Med Chil. 2010 Oct;138(10):1246-52. [Effects of glycine on auditory evoked potentials among diabetic patients with auditory pathway neuropathy]. [Article in Spanish] Muñoz-Carlin Mde L, Rodríguez-Moctezuma JR, Gómez Latorre JG, Montes-Castillo ML, Juárez-Adauta S.
  37. Life Sci. 2006 Jun 13;79(3):225-32. Oral glycine administration attenuates diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Alvarado-Vásquez N, Lascurain R, Cerón E, Vanda B, Carvajal-Sandoval G, Tapia A, Guevara J, Montaño LF, Zenteno E.
  38. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences 2014;21 Assessment of Oral Glycine and Lysine Therapy on Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Transforming Growth Factor Beta Expression in the Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats in Comparison with Normal Rats. Somayeh Sadat Heidary, M.Sc., et al.
  39. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine 2013;5:109-114 Effect of Glycine on Protein Oxidation and Advanced Glycation End Products Formation Salinas Arreortua Noe, García Lorenzana Mario, Genoveva Durán Reyes, Villagómez Jasso Edgar Iván, Alarcón Aguilar Francisco Javier, Gómez Olivares José Luis "The experimental data demonstrate that glycine reduced glucose, HbA1C, and fructosamine levels in blood. Even more, glycine significantly reduced AGE-BSA conformation, but the reduction of protein oxidation occurred only in the kidneys."
  40. Carcinogenesis. 1999 Nov;20(11):2075-81. Dietary glycine prevents the development of liver tumors caused by the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643. Rose ML, Cattley RC, Dunn C, Wong V, Li X, Thurman RG.
  41. “Turmeric.” n.d. Accessed April 1, 2021. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/turmeric.
  42. Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai, Sunee Thanakhumtorn, Pornsiri Chinswangwatanakul, Luksamee Wattanamongkonsil, and Visanu Thamlikitkul. 2009. “Efficacy and Safety of Curcuma Domestica Extracts in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 15 (8): 891–97.
  43. Daily, James W., Mini Yang, and Sunmin Park. 2016. “Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.” Journal of Medicinal Food 19 (8): 717–29.
  44. “Supplement and Herb Guide for Arthritis Symptoms.” n.d. Accessed April 1, 2021. https://www.arthritis.org/health-wellness/treatment/complementary-therapies/supplements-and-vitamins/supplement-and-herb-guide-for-arthritis-symptoms.
  45. Kim, Dong-Chan, Sae-Kwang Ku, and Jong-Sup Bae. 2012. “Anticoagulant Activities of Curcumin and Its Derivative.” BMB Reports 45 (4): 221–26.
  46. Kulkarni, S. K., and A. Dhir. 2010. “An Overview of Curcumin in Neurological Disorders.” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 72 (2): 149–54.
  47. Kathleen Jade, N. D. 2019. “2 Natural Antidepressants Found to Be as Effective as Prozac - University Health News.” March 21, 2019. https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/depression/2-natural-antidepressants-found-to-be-as-effective-as-prozac/.
  48. Yu, Jing-Jie, Liu-Bao Pei, Yong Zhang, Zi-Yu Wen, and Jian-Li Yang. 2015. “Chronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 35 (4): 406–10.
  49. Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob, Gustavo Roberto Thomé, Vera Maria Morsch, Nathieli B. Bottari, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Lizielle Souza de Oliveira, Jeferson Ferraz Goularte, et al. 2016. “Effect of Ginger and Turmeric Rhizomes on Inflammatory Cytokines Levels and Enzyme Activities of Cholinergic and Purinergic Systems in Hypertensive Rats.” Planta Medica 82 (7): 612–20.
  50. Charles, V., and S. X. Charles. 1992. “The Use and Efficacy of Azadirachta Indica ADR (’Neem') and Curcuma Longa ('Turmeric') in Scabies. A Pilot Study.” Tropical and Geographical Medicine 44 (1-2): 178–81.
  51. Siddiqui, M. Z. 2011. “Boswellia Serrata, a Potential Antiinflammatory Agent: An Overview.” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 73 (3): 255–61.
  52. Su, Shulan, Jinao Duan, Ting Chen, Xiaochen Huang, Erxin Shang, Li Yu, Kaifeng Wei, et al. 2015. “Frankincense and Myrrh Suppress Inflammation via Regulation of the Metabolic Profiling and the MAPK Signaling Pathway.” Scientific Reports 5 (September): 13668.
  53. Ernst, E. 2008. “Frankincense: Systematic Review.” BMJ 337 (December): a2813.
  54. Blain, Emma J., Ahmed Y. Ali, and Victor C. Duance. 2010. “Boswellia Frereana (frankincense) Suppresses Cytokine-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression and Production of pro-Inflammatory Molecules in Articular Cartilage.” Phytotherapy Research: PTR 24 (6): 905–12.
  55. Blain, Emma J., Ahmed Y. Ali, and Victor C. Duance. 2010. “Boswellia Frereana (frankincense) Suppresses Cytokine-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression and Production of pro-Inflammatory Molecules in Articular Cartilage.” Phytotherapy Research: PTR 24 (6): 905–12.
  56. Straube, Sebastian, Martin R. Tramèr, R. Andrew Moore, Sheena Derry, and Henry J. McQuay. 2009. “Mortality with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Perforation: Effects of Time and NSAID Use.” BMC Gastroenterology 9 (June): 41.
  57. Straube, Sebastian, Martin R. Tramèr, R. Andrew Moore, Sheena Derry, and Henry J. McQuay. 2009. “Mortality with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Perforation: Effects of Time and NSAID Use.” BMC Gastroenterology 9 (June): 41.
  58. Roxas, Mario. 2008. “The Role of Enzyme Supplementation in Digestive Disorders.” Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic 13 (4): 307–14.
  59. Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J., P. A. A. Struijs, C. de Wit, V. W. Rahlfs, H. Zwipp, and C. N. van Dijk. 2004. “A Double Blind, Randomised, Parallel Group Study on the Efficacy and Safety of Treating Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain with Oral Hydrolytic Enzymes.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 38 (4): 431–35.
  60. Kamenícek, V., P. Holán, and P. Franĕk. 2001. “[Systemic enzyme therapy in the treatment and prevention of post-traumatic and postoperative swelling].” Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca 68 (1): 45–49.
  61. Secor, Eric R., Jr, Sonali J. Shah, Linda A. Guernsey, Craig M. Schramm, and Roger S. Thrall. 2012. “Bromelain Limits Airway Inflammation in an Ovalbumin-Induced Murine Model of Established Asthma.” Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 18 (5): 9–17.
  62. Brien, Sarah, George Lewith, Ann Walker, Stephen M. Hicks, and Dick Middleton. 2004. “Bromelain as a Treatment for Osteoarthritis: A Review of Clinical Studies.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM 1 (3): 251–57.
  63. Boss A, Bishop K, Marlow G, Barnett M, Ferguson L. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions. Nutrients. 2016;8(8). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27548217.
  64. Abunab H, Dator W, Hawamdeh S. Effect of olive leaf extract on glucose levels in diabetes-induced rats: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Diabetes. 2017;9(10):947-957. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27860303.
  65. Lockyer S, Rowland I, Spencer J, Yaqoob P, Stonehouse W. Impact of phenolic-rich olive leaf extract on blood pressure, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers: a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(4):1421-1432. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26951205.
  66. Vogel P, Kasper M, Garavaglia J, Zani V, de S, Morelo D. Polyphenols benefits of olive leaf (Olea europaea L) to human health. Nutr Hosp. 2014;31(3):1427-1433. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25726243.
  67. Boss A, Kao C, Murray P, Marlow G, Barnett M, Ferguson L. Human Intervention Study to Assess the Effects of Supplementation with Olive Leaf Extract on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(12). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27918443.
  68. Romero C, Medina E, Mateo M, Brenes M. Quantification of bioactive compounds in Picual and Arbequina olive leaves and fruit. J Sci Food Agric. 2017;97(6):1725-1732. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27447942.
  69. Booz G. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51(5):1054-1061. [PubMed]
  70. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Bátkai S, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(25):2115-2125. [PubMed]
  71. Weiss L, Zeira M, Reich S, et al. Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Autoimmunity. 2006;39(2):143-151. [PubMed]
  72. Izzo A, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Di M, Mechoulam R. Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30(10):515-527. [PubMed]
  73. Shi P, Diez-Freire C, Jun J, et al. Brain microglial cytokines in neurogenic hypertension. Hypertension. 2010;56(2):297-303. [PubMed]
  74. Zuardi A. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2008;30(3):271-280. [PubMed]
  75. Pertwee R. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153(2):199-215. [PubMed]
  76. Toth C, Jedrzejewski N, Ellis C, Frey W. Cannabinoid-mediated modulation of neuropathic pain and microglial accumulation in a model of murine type I diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Mol Pain. 2010;6:16. [PubMed]
  77. Kim D, You B, Jo E, Han S, Simon M, Lee S. NADPH oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species in spinal cord microglia contribute to peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107(33):14851-14856. [PubMed]
  78. Malfait A, Gallily R, Sumariwalla P, et al. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97(17):9561-9566. [PubMed]
  79. Toth C, Jedrzejewski N, Ellis C, Frey W. Cannabinoid-mediated modulation of neuropathic pain and microglial accumulation in a model of murine type I diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Mol Pain. 2010;6:16. [PubMed]
  80. Weiss L, Zeira M, Reich S, et al. Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54(1):244-249. [PubMed]
  81. Pacher P, Beckman J, Liaudet L. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2007;87(1):315-424. [PubMed]
  82. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Bátkai S, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293(1):H610-9. [PubMed]
  83. El-Remessy A, Al-Shabrawey M, Khalifa Y, Tsai N, Caldwell R, Liou G. Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes. Am J Pathol. 2006;168(1):235-244. [PubMed]
  84. Maes M, Galecki P, Chang Y, Berk M. A review on the oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways in major depression and their possible contribution to the (neuro)degenerative processes in that illness. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35(3):676-692. [PubMed]
  85. Song C, Wang H. Cytokines mediated inflammation and decreased neurogenesis in animal models of depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35(3):760-768. [PubMed]
  86. El-Alfy A, Ivey K, Robinson K, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;95(4):434-442. [PubMed]
  87. Zanelati T, Biojone C, Moreira F, Guimarães F, Joca S. Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159(1):122-128. [PubMed]
  88. Brown, Greg, John J. Albers, Lloyd D. Fisher, Susan M. Schaefer, Jiin-Tarng Lin, Cheryl Kaplan, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Brad D. Bisson, Virginia F. Fitzpatrick, and Harold T. Dodge. 1990. “Regression of Coronary Artery Disease as a Result of Intensive Lipid-Lowering Therapy in Men with High Levels of Apolipoprotein B.” The New England Journal of Medicine 323 (19): 1289–98.
  89. Martin, David L. 1994. “Pyridoxal Phosphate, GABA and Seizure Susceptibility.” In Biochemistry of Vitamin B6 and PQQ, 343–47. Birkhäuser Basel.
  90. Miodownik, Chanoch, Vladimir Lerner, Tali Vishne, Ben-Ami Sela, and Joseph Levine. 2007. “High-Dose Vitamin B6 Decreases Homocysteine Serum Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders: A Preliminary Study.” Clinical Neuropharmacology 30 (1): 13–17.
  91. Cattaneo, Marco. 2017. “Hyperhomocysteinemia, Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis.” Thrombosis and Haemostasis 81 (02): 165–76.
  92. Nelen, W. L., H. J. Blom, E. A. Steegers, M. den Heijer, C. M. Thomas, and T. K. Eskes. 2000. “Homocysteine and Folate Levels as Risk Factors for Recurrent Early Pregnancy Loss.” Obstetrics and Gynecology 95 (4): 519–24.
  93. Put, N. M. van der, H. W. van Straaten, F. J. Trijbels, and H. J. Blom. 2001. “Folate, Homocysteine and Neural Tube Defects: An Overview.” Experimental Biology and Medicine 226 (4): 243–70.
  94. Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna, Joanna Malinowska, Beata Olas, Rafal Głowacki, Edward Bald, Barbara Wachowicz, and Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska. 2012. “The Oxidative Stress May Be Induced by the Elevated Homocysteine in Schizophrenic Patients.” Neurochemical Research 37 (5): 1057–62.
  95. Morris, Martha Savaria. 2003. “Homocysteine and Alzheimer’s Disease.” Lancet Neurology 2 (7): 425–28.
  96. Smach, Mohamed Ali, Nelly Jacob, Jean-Louis Golmard, Bassem Charfeddine, Turkia Lammouchi, Leila Ben Othman, Hedi Dridi, Soufien Bennamou, and Khalifa Limem. 2011. “Folate and Homocysteine in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease or Dementia: A Case Control Study.” European Neurology 65 (5): 270–78.
  97. Walsh, William J. 2014. Nutrient Power: Heal Your Biochemistry and Heal Your Brain. Revised, Updated ed. edition. Skyhorse.

 

 

 

Serotonin

  1. “Declassified.” n.d. Accessed April 2, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20020131081305/http://www.michael-robinett.com/declass/c011.htm.
  2. Mansnerus, Laura. 1996. “Timothy Leary, Pied Piper Of Psychedelic 60’s, Dies at 75.” The New York Times, June 1, 1996. https://www.nytimes.com/1996/06/01/us/timothy-leary-pied-piper-of-psychedelic-60-s-dies-at-75.html.
  3. AlterNet. 2017. “He Was No Hippie: Remembering Manson, Prison, Scientology and Mind Control.” Raw Story - Celebrating 16 Years of Independent Journalism. November 26, 2017. https://www.rawstory.com/2017/11/he-was-no-hippie-remembering-manson-prison-scientology-and-mind-control/.
  4. Babenko, V., P. Svensson, T. Graven-Nielsen, A. M. Drewes, T. S. Jensen, and L. Arendt-Nielsen. 2000. “Duration and Distribution of Experimental Muscle Hyperalgesia in Humans Following Combined Infusions of Serotonin and Bradykinin.” Brain Research 853 (2): 275–81.
  5. Hamel, E. 2007. “Serotonin and Migraine: Biology and Clinical Implications.” Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache 27 (11): 1293–1300.
  6. “Can-Long-Term-Antidepressant-Use-Be-Depressogenic.pdf.” n.d. https://www.madinamerica.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Can-long-term-andtidepressant-use-be-depressogenic.pdf.
  7. Goldberg, D., M. Privett, B. Ustun, G. Simon, and M. Linden. 1998. “The Effects of Detection and Treatment on the Outcome of Major Depression in Primary Care: A Naturalistic Study in 15 Cities.” The British Journal of General Practice: The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 48 (437): 1840–44.
  8. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa065779
  9. Kirsch, Irving, Brett J. Deacon, Tania B. Huedo-Medina, Alan Scoboria, Thomas J. Moore, and Blair T. Johnson. 2008. “Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A Meta-Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration.” PLoS Medicine 5 (2): e45.
  10. Moncrieff, J., S. Wessely, and R. Hardy. 2004. “Active Placebos versus Antidepressants for Depression.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , no. 1: CD003012.
  11. Moncrieff, J., S. Wessely, and R. Hardy. 1998. “Meta-Analysis of Trials Comparing Antidepressants with Active Placebos.” The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science 172 (March): 227–31; discussion 232–34.
  12. Khan, A., H. A. Warner, and W. A. Brown. 2000. “Symptom Reduction and Suicide Risk in Patients Treated with Placebo in Antidepressant Clinical Trials: An Analysis of the Food and Drug Administration Database.” Archives of General Psychiatry 57 (4): 311–17.
  13. Leon, A. C. 2000. “Placebo Protects Subjects from Nonresponse: A Paradox of Power.” Archives of General Psychiatry.
  14. Turner, Erick H., Annette M. Matthews, Eftihia Linardatos, Robert A. Tell, and Robert Rosenthal. 2008. “Selective Publication of Antidepressant Trials and Its Influence on Apparent Efficacy.” The New England Journal of Medicine 358 (3): 252–60.
  15. Frick, Andreas, Fredrik Åhs, Jonas Engman, My Jonasson, Iman Alaie, Johannes Björkstrand, Örjan Frans, et al. 2015. “Serotonin Synthesis and Reuptake in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.” JAMA Psychiatry 72 (8): 794–802.
  16. Zuardi, A. W. 1990. “5-HT-Related Drugs and Human Experimental Anxiety.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 14 (4): 507–10.
  17. Zimmerman, D., H. E. Abboud, L. E. George, A. J. Edis, and T. P. Dousa. 1980. “Serotonin Stimulates Adenosine 3’,5'-Monophosphate Accumulation in Parathyroid Adenoma.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 51 (6): 1274–78.
  18. Santos, Lucinéia dos, Telma G. C. S. de Andrade, and Frederico G. Graeff. 2010. “Social Separation and Diazepam Withdrawal Increase Anxiety in the Elevated plus-Maze and Serotonin Turnover in the Median Raphe and Hippocampus.” Journal of Psychopharmacology 24 (5): 725–31.
  19. Boer, Sietse F. de, and Jaap M. Koolhaas. 2005. “5-HT1A and 5-HT1B Receptor Agonists and Aggression: A Pharmacological Challenge of the Serotonin Deficiency Hypothesis.” European Journal of Pharmacology 526 (1-3): 125–39.
  20. Perry, George, Marta A. Taddeo, Akihiko Nunomura, Xiongwei Zhu, Tania Zenteno-Savin, Kelly L. Drew, Shun Shimohama, Jesús Avila, Rudolph J. Castellani, and Mark A. Smith. 2002. “Comparative Biology and Pathology of Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases: Beyond Damage and Response.” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP 133 (4): 507–13.
  21. Medvedev, A. E. 1990. “[Regulation by biogenic amines of energy functions of mitochondria].” Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii 36 (5): 18–21.
  22. Hiroi, Ryoko, Ross A. McDevitt, and John F. Neumaier. 2006. “Estrogen Selectively Increases Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 mRNA Expression in Distinct Subregions of Rat Midbrain Raphe Nucleus: Association between Gene Expression and Anxiety Behavior in the Open Field.” Biological Psychiatry 60 (3): 288–95.
  23. Hansenne, M., and M. Ansseau. 1999. “Harm Avoidance and Serotonin.” Biological Psychology 51 (1): 77–81.
  24. Graeff, F. G., M. B. Viana, and P. O. Mora. 1997. “Dual Role of 5-HT in Defense and Anxiety.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 21 (6): 791–99.
  25. Anthony, M. 1984. “Serotonin Antagonists.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 14 (6): 888–95.
  26. Aleksandrin, V. V., N. N. Tarasova, and I. A. Tarakanov. 2005. “Effect of Serotonin on Respiration, Cerebral Circulation, and Blood Pressure in Rats.” Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 139 (1): 64–67.
  27. Lacasse, Jeffrey R., and Jonathan Leo. 2005. “Serotonin and Depression: A Disconnect between the Advertisements and the Scientific Literature.” PLoS Medicine 2 (12): e392.
  28. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa065779
  29. Yokogoshi, H., Y. Kato, Y. M. Sagesaka, T. Takihara-Matsuura, T. Kakuda, and N. Takeuchi. 1995. “Reduction Effect of Theanine on Blood Pressure and Brain 5-Hydroxyindoles in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 59 (4): 615–18.
  30. Yokogoshi, H., M. Mochizuki, and K. Saitoh. 1998. “Theanine-Induced Reduction of Brain Serotonin Concentration in Rats.” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 62 (4): 816–17.

 

 

How To Eat Thermo

  1. Center for Food Safety, and Applied Nutrition. n.d. “Health Claim Notification for Whole Grain Foods.” Accessed April 2, 2021. https://www.fda.gov/food/food-labeling-nutrition/health-claim-notification-whole-grain-foods.
  2. Lee, Cheng-Sheng. 2015. Dietary Nutrients, Additives and Fish Health. John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Oatway, Lori, Thava Vasanthan, and James H. Helm. 2001. “PHYTIC ACID.” Food Reviews International 17 (4): 419–31.
  4. Volek, J. S., W. J. Kraemer, J. A. Bush, T. Incledon, and M. Boetes. 1997. “Testosterone and Cortisol in Relationship to Dietary Nutrients and Resistance Exercise.” Journal of Applied Physiology 82 (1): 49–54.
  5. Hämäläinen, E., H. Adlercreutz, P. Puska, and P. Pietinen. 1984. “Diet and Serum Sex Hormones in Healthy Men.” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 20 (1): 459–64.
  6. Bélanger, A., A. Locong, C. Noel, L. Cusan, A. Dupont, J. Prévost, S. Caron, and J. Sévigny. 1989. “Influence of Diet on Plasma Steroids and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels in Adult Men.” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 32 (6): 829–33.
  7. Mascioli, E. A., B. R. Bistrian, V. K. Babayan, and G. L. Blackburn. 1987. “Medium Chain Triglycerides and Structured Lipids as Unique Nonglucose Energy Sources in Hyperalimentation.” Lipids 22 (6): 421–23.
  8. “What Is Oxidative Stress?” 2010. March 2, 2010. https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Oxidative-Stress.aspx.
  9. Yoshikawa, Toshikazu, and Yuji Naito. 2002. “What Is Oxidative Stress?” 2002. https://www.med.or.jp/english/pdf/2002_07/271_276.pdf.
  10. “Arsenic In Your Food Investigated - Consumer Reports.” n.d. Accessed April 2, 2021. https://www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine/2012/11/arsenic-in-your-food/index.htm.
  11. Chris Kresser, M. S. 2012. “Arsenic in Rice: How Concerned Should You Be?” Chris Kresser LLC. October 12, 2012. https://chriskresser.com/arsenic-in-rice-how-concerned-should-you-be/.
  12. Bressani, Ricardo, Juan Carlos Turcios, Ana Silvia Colmenares de Ruiz, and Patricia Palocios de Palomo. 2004. “Effect of Processing Conditions on Phytic Acid, Calcium, Iron, and Zinc Contents of Lime-Cooked Maize.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52 (5): 1157–62.
  13. Dombrink-Kurtzman, M. A., T. J. Dvorak, M. E. Barron, and L. W. Rooney. 2000. “Effect of Nixtamalization (Alkaline Cooking) on Fumonisin-Contaminated Corn for Production of Masa and Tortillas.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48 (11): 5781–86.
  14. “Interciencia – Revista Interciencia.” n.d. Accessed April 2, 2021. https://www.interciencia.net/.
  15. Pappa, María Renée, Patricia Palacios de Palomo, and Ricardo Bressani. 2010. “Effect of Lime and Wood Ash on the Nixtamalization of Maize and Tortilla Chemical and Nutritional Characteristics.” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 65 (2): 130–35.
  16. https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/23799/PDF
  17. https://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/backissues/1992/documents/69_275.pdf